The XXXIX Articles of the Church of England
Illustrated By Extracts From the Liturgy, Nowell’s Catechism, Jewell’s Apology,
The Homilies, Bullinger’s Decades, &C., and Confirmed By Passages of Scripture.
A New Edition, Very Much Enlarged.
By William Wilson
J. Abrams, 1840
[Spelling selectively modernized. Bible citations in all Arabic numbers.]
Table Of The Thirty-Nine Articles Articuli Religionis, Anno 1562.
1. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity. 1. De fide in sacro-sanctam Trinitatem.
2. Of Christ the Son of God. 2. De verbo, sive Filio, Dei, qui verus homo factus est.
3. Of his going down into Hell. 3. De descensu Christi ad Inferos.
4. Of his Resurrection. 4. De resurrectione Christi.
5. Of the Holy Ghost. 5. De Spiritu Sancto.
6. Of the Sufficiency of the Scripture. 6. De divinis Scripturis, quod sufficiant ad salutem.
7. Of the Old Testament. 7. De veteri Testamento.
8. Of the Three Creeds. 8. De tribus Symbolis.
9. Of Original Sin. 9-15 9. De peccato originali.
10. Of Free Will. 10. De libero arbitrio.
11. Of Justification. 11. De hominis justificatione.
12. Of Good Works. 12. De bonis operibus.
13. Of Works before Justification. 13. De operibus ante justificationem.
14. Of Works of Supererogation. 14. De operibus supererogationis.
15. Of Christ alone without Sin. 15. De Christo, qui solus est sine peccato.
16. Of Sin after Baptism. 16-17 16. De peccato post Baptismum.
17. Of Predestination and Election. 17. De praedestinatione et electione.
18. Of obtaining Salvation by Christ. 18-27 18. De speranda aeterna salute tantum in nomine Christi.
19. Of the Church. 19. De Ecclesia.
20. Of the Authority of the Church. 20. De Ecclesiae authoritate.
21. Of the Authority of General Councils. 21. De authoritate Conciliorum generalium.
22. Of Purgatory. 22. De Purgatorio.
23. -Of Ministering in the Congregation. 23. De ministrando in Ecclesia.
24. Of Speaking in the Congregation. 24. De loquendo in Ecclesia lingua quam populus intelligit.
25. Of the Sacraments. 25. De Sacramentis.
26. Of the unworthiness of Ministers. 26. De vi institutionum divinarum, quod eam non tollat malitia Ministrorum.
27. Of Baptism. 27. De Baptismo.
28. Of the Lord’s Supper. 28-39 28. De Coena Domini.
29. Of the Wicked which eat not 29. De manducatione corporis Christi, et impios illud non manducare.
the Body of Christ.
30. Of both kinds. 30. De utraque specie.
31. Of Christ’s One Oblation. 31. De unica Christi oblatione in cruce perfecta.
32. Of the Marriage of Priests. 32. De conjugio Sacerdotum.
33. Of Excommunicate Persons. 33. De excommunicatis vitandis.
34. Of the Traditions of the Church. 34. De traditionibus Ecclesiasticis.
35. Of Homilies. 35. De Homiliis.
36. Of Consecration of Ministers. 36. De Episcoporum et Ministrorum consecratione.
37. Of Civil Magistrates. 37. De civilibus Magistratibus.
38. Of Christian Men’s Goods. 38. De illicita bonorum comnmunicatione.
39. Of a Christian Man’s Oath. 39. De jurejurando.
That the Articles of our Church were never intended to be mere Articles of peace, within which, as a kind of outward fence, the straying of human opinion should be circumscribed, may easily be inferred from a very slight examination of their structure and arrangement; and still more from their close connection, in expression as well as doctrine, with the public formularies of the Church; with the common standards she has provided for public worship, and for the instruction of her members, in private as well as from the pulpit. In short, the “true and Christian faith,” so fully explained in our Homilies, is the principle upon which she claims “assent and consent to all and every thing contained” in those Articles; that so a foundation may be laid for the edification of all her members, according to the solemn injunction she lays upon those to whom the care of souls is committed: “See that you never cease your labour, your care and diligence, until you have done all that lieth in you, according to your bounden duty, to bring all such as are or shall be committed to your charge unto that agreement in faith and knowledge of God, and to that ripeness and perfectness of age in Christ, that there be no place left among you either of error in religion, or for viciousness of life.” [Ordination Service.]
There are some particulars connected with the history of the Articles, which it may be of importance to adduce, with reference to these observations, and to the general object of the present publication.
It is well known, that the Articles were first “devised” in the reign of Edward VI and further altered and amended in the reign of Elizabeth.
In the conflict of opposing parties, each anticipating on the death of Henry VIII, further exertions in the cause of the Reformation, the concerns of true religion were suffering materially from the violence of papistical advocates on the one hand, or the too forward zeal of protestants on the other; and this combined with a boldness of speculation, such as might be expected to shew itself in the enjoyment or the prospect of emancipation from Romish tyranny. The young King had repeated occasion to stay the eagerness of the latter, and enjoin them to wait the measures of those from whose authority all changes must proceed. It was one of the first acts of this Monarch with regard to religion, to lay an inhibition on preaching, till some standard of doctrine was provided, restricting all Bishops and Clergy to their own cathedrals and cures, and requiring them to admit no preacher that was not duly licensed. [Burnet’s Hist. of the Reformation, part II. book I.] To supply the “lack of preachers,” the first book of Homilies was “set forth by authority” with a particular injunction to the Bishops that “they should not at any time or place preach or set forth unto the people any doctrine contrary or repugnant to the effect contained or set forth in the King’s Highness’ Homilies; neither yet should admit or give license to preach to any within their diocese, but to such as they should know, or at least assuredly trust, would do the same.” [Wilkins’s Concilia Magnae Britanniae, vol. iv. p. 9]
Cranmer, however, and the other friends of the Reformation, made it their particular care to select proper men, who, being licensed to preach, might by their sermons promote the cause of the Reformation. In a letter [Burnet’s Hist. Ref. p. II. book i. App. No. 24.] addressed to such as had received this license, it is stated, “that the King had thought good to inhibit all manner of preachers who have not such license to preach, or stir the people in open or common preachings of sermons, by any means, that the devout and godly Homilies might the better in the meanwhile sink into his subjects’ hearts, and be learned the sooner.”
In a few months, however, a proclamation [Fuller’s Ch. Hist. lib. vii. p. 388. &c. Wilkins’s Concilia, vol. iv. p. 30.] was issued for the inhibition of all preachers, on the ground that many, so licensed as we have stated above, “had abused the authority of preaching, and behaved themselves irreverently, and without good order in the said preachings. Wherefore His Highness, minding to see very shortly one uniform order throughout this his realm, and to put an end to all controversies in religion, so far as God should give grace, (for which cause at this time certain Bishops and notable learned men, by His Highness’ commandment, are congregate,) hath thought good, although certain and many of the said preachers, so before licensed, have behaved themselves very discreetly and wisely, and to the honour of God, and to His Highness’ contentation; yet at this present, and until such time as the said order shall be set forth generally, throughout His Majesty’s realm, to inhibit, and by these presents do inhibit generally, as well the said preachers so before licensed, as all manner of persons whosoever they be, to preach in open audience, in the pulpit or otherwise, by any sought colour or fraud, to the disobeying of this commandment, to the intent that the whole clergy in this mean space might apply themselves to prayer to Almighty God for the better achieving of the same most godly intent and purpose, not doubting but that also his loving subjects in the meantime will occupy themselves to God’s honour, with due prayer in the church, and patient hearing of the godly Homilies, heretofore set forth by His Highness’ injunctions to them; and so endeavour themselves that they may be the more ready with thankful obedience to receive a most quiet, godly, and uniform order, to be had throughout all his said realms and dominions.”
We see then that the framing of the Articles had a particular reference to pulpit instruction; that all preaching was suspended till they were prepared; that the object intended by them was to establish “one uniform order,” and “to take away all controversies in religion”. The same intent is fully recognized in the declaration prefixed to the Articles as we now have them.
The important use to which the Homilies were assigned in the period above alluded to is a sufficient recognition of their agreement with the principles and doctrines of the Reformation, and of the propriety of their being considered one of the sources of an illustration of the Articles.
With respect to Nowell’s Catechism, its authority for the purpose to which it also is here employed [The translation used is the one made by T. Norton, and printed by John Day, cum privilegio Regiae Majestatis per Decennium An. 1571; but the references are to the pages of a Latin edition by the present Editor.] rests, if not on the recorded sanction of Convocation, yet on the circumstance of its having been enjoined as an authorized Catechism of instruction, to be used by all schoolmasters exclusively.
The history of this work is as follows. [See Archdeacon Churton’s interesting Life of Dean Nowell, sect. vii. and also Strype’s Annals of the Reformation, p. 313.] Near the end of the reign of Edward VI a Catechism had been published by authority, supposed to have been composed by Poinet, Bishop of Winchester. Previously to the Convocation of 1562, at the suggestion of Secretary Cecil, Nowell undertook a similar work on a larger scale, making much use however of the one just mentioned.
In the minutes of this Convocation, as quoted by Strype, is the following passage [Strype’s Annals of the Reformation, vol. i. p. 317.]: “First, a Catechism is to be set forth in Latin: which is already done by Mr. Dean of Paul’s, and wanteth only viewing. Secondly, certain Articles containing the principal grounds of Christian religion are to be set forthmuch like to such Articles as were set forth a little before the death of King Edward. Of which Articles the most part may be used, with addition and correction, as shall be thought convenient. Thirdly, to these also may be adjoined the Apology (of Bishop Jewell), lately set forth, after it hath been once revised, and so augmented or corrected as occasion serveth. These to be joined in one book, and by common consent to be authorized as containing true doctrine, and enjoined to be taught to the youth in the Universities and Grammar Schools throughout the realm.” To which the Archbishop added, “and in Cathedral Churches and Collegiate, and in Private Houses”. So much, as Archdeacon Churton observes, had he at heart the advancement of true religion, and so much did he approve of those means of advancing it.
In what manner the Convocation gave their sanction to this Catechism and Apology, does not appear by any public document; but in a letter written by the Dean to the Secretary, dated June, 1563, a little after the rising of the Synod, there is the following statement: “Whereas the copy of the Catechism, which he caused to be written out for his Honour, came to the hands of the Bishops and Clergy assembled in the late Convocation; and by reason that certain places were by their judgments altered, and that it was interlined, and somewhat blotted, he had caused it to be copied out again; and had sent it him now, not in his own name as afore, but in the name of the Clergy of the Convocation, as their book, seeing it was by them approved and allowed. That he would have sent it sooner, but that he thought his Honour to be occupied with certain most weighty public affairs; – which seeing they did not so speedily as he trusted draw toward an end, but continued and augmented still, he thought it meet that the copy of the book, at the beginning appointed and dedicated to his Honour, should remain with the same; that when opportunity should serve, he might at leisure have it, and judge whether it were not worthy, by his help, to be made public by the Queen’s Majesty’s authority. For how expedient it were that some treaty of religion should be set forth publicly in the name of our country, his Honour did well understand, seeing the opinion beyond the seas was, that nothing religious was, with any authority or consent of any number of the learned here in our country, taught and set forth: but that a few private persons taught and wrote their opinions, without the approbation of any authority at all. That for his part he had taken pains, as well about the matter of the book, that it might be consonant unto the true doctrine of the Scriptures, as also that the style might agree with the purity of the Latin tongue. And that as the book had not misliked their judgments, whom he did both most allow, and also reverence; so if it might likewise be approved to him, to whose patrocinii in his purpose he appointed it, when he first began it, he should think his pains most happily bestowed.” [Strype’s Annals of the Reformation, vol. i. p. 353.]
After remaining in Cecil’s hands above a year, and then with the author till 1570, receiving as it appears some corrections, it was called for again by both Archbishops, in order that it might be published.
Accordingly in the Canons, agreed upon by the Archbishop Parker and the Bishops of his province, in 1571, it was enjoined [Sparrow’s Canons, &c.] that schoolmasters should teach no other Latin Catechism but that which was published in the year 1570, (plainly meaning Nowell’s Catechism,) and that such children as did not understand Latin should learn the English translation. Again, in the Canons of the Church drawn up and agreed upon in the year 1603, it was ordered [Ibid.] that “all schoolmasters shall teach in English or Latin, as the children are able to bear, the larger or shorter Catechism, heretofore by public authority set forth.”
Our notice of this important work shall be concluded by an extract from the preface to the Enchiridion Theologicum, published by Bp. Randolph, which will include also all that need yet be said on the propriety of uniting Jewell’s Apology [The translation of this work used in this publication is the one found in Bishop Jewell’s Defence of the Apology, in answer to Harding. The Apology, as well as Nowell’s Catechism, it is well known was published originally in Latin: both remarkable for their classical elegance, and the former for a strain of animated eloquence, advocating the cause of truth, of soberness, and of genuine religion.] to the other authorized documents.
“It is another object of the present plan to shew the genuine sense of the Church of England in her earliest days, both as to the grounds of separation from the Church of Rome, and the doctrines which, after a long struggle having entirely emancipated herself from that yoke, she at length finally adopted and ratified. For this purpose my choice has been principally directed to such works as had the sanction of public authority, and which may therefore be relied on as containing the final and decided opinions of our Reformers, approved of in the general by the Church at large; whereas in other cases they may have delivered opinions which they afterwards changed, or private opinions which they did not venture to propose on the part of the Church. Of this kind, that is, thus publicly received, were Jewell’s Apology, and Nowell’s Catechism, the former of which is said to have been published with consent of the bishops, and was always understood to speak the sense of the whole Church, in whose name it was written; the latter had the express sanction of Convocation. – Both these works have also a claim to the attention of the reader, both for clearness of argument, and for elegance of language;” that is, in the Latin, in which they were both first published.
When with these works is united the venerable Liturgy of our Church, it is due to an authority so sacred to make a right distinction with respect to the confirmation thus received in behalf of the Articles of our Church. It is indeed second only to the warrant of Scripture itself. Having then received the materials of that Liturgy, as we now possess it, recovered from the worse than superstitious additions forced into it by popish presumption, and restored to the original purpose for which they were first intended by the primitive Church; we shall do well to compare, with devout and close attention, this summary of our faith, with the language of those prayers which the devotion of early Christians has dictated for the use of succeeding generations.
# Perhaps in none will the accordance of the Liturgy with the Articles, and of the Articles with the Liturgy, appear more interesting or more important, than in the Seventeenth. Nor is this observation made with a view to mere controversial points, but with a reference to the cause of true piety: of which a more just summary was never made by human wisdom, nor could Christian experience more faithfully transfer the testimony of Scripture to the delineation of its own character. The Church, which demands our attention to this portion of her Creed, may well make but little account of the attachment of that member of her society who cannot rise from the discussions of which it has been the occasion,* and contemplate with kindred feelings the decisive testimony this Article bears to personal religion, and acknowledge how interesting an agreement there is between the several portions of it, and some of the best forms of prayer among our Collects.
[* It would be well if the following observation were always borne in mind by those who undertake the discussion of the subject so closely connected with personal religion as the Seventeenth Article:
“Is it possible that any sincere believer should so far belie his profession as to scoff at this notion of conscious fellowship with the Holy Spirit? When the voice of our Church expressly proclaims ‘that the godly consideration of predestination, and our election in Christ, is full of sweet, pleasant, and unspeakable comfort to godly persons, and such as feel in themselves the working of the Spirit of Christ, mortifying the works of the flesh, and their earthly members, and drawing up their mind to high and heavenly things,’ can any man who has declared his assent to that Article venture to make the very object it describes a theme of scorn and derision? – It is possible the individual against whom the ridicule is aimed may be a hypocrite, or he may be an enthusiast – let God be his judge: to his own Master let him stand or fall. But whatever the case may be, he cannot be a greater hypocrite than that man who professes to believe all that our Church believes, and yet vilifies and derides one of her most solemn and explicit declarations.” Dr. Copleston’s Four Discourses on Necessity and Predestination. 1821.]
The Editor is bound to confess, that in preparing the present publication, the time necessarily spent in collecting and arranging the materials has not been without that profit to himself, which he would hope the perusal of it may be to others. If the present attempt shall in any measure prove how judiciously concise, and yet how fully appropriate to the subject, is the expressive language of our Articles – how nicely our Church has adjusted the balance of those doctrines which, as the test of her communion, she requires to be received with a “pure heart, with a good conscience, and with faith unfeigned” [See Reformatio Legum Eccles. Tit. i. cap. 2.] – how intimately and necessarily the doctrines so proposed are interwoven in her prayers – how faithfully they are recorded and maintained in her authorized forms of instruction – how profitably they are enlarged upon “in the spirit of a sound mind” in the Homilies: and, lastly, if it may appear, that a real member of the Church is one, who has been instructed by her, who believes to the saving of the soul, who prays with the understanding, who walks religiously in good works, and who, in the knowledge and obedience of God’s holy word, is more and more established and confirmed in the faith of eternal salvation to be enjoyed through Christ – The object which the Editor had in view shall be answered; and however humble the claims of this publication, they will be allowed by all who seek the peace and welfare of our Zion.
It is only now necessary to add, in respect to the present edition, that a new arrangement has been adopted in placing the Scripture passages before the Extracts; and thus, by using for the latter a smaller type, both have been considerably enlarged, without any material increase in the size of the volume. It will be found, it is believed, that important additions have been made to the Scripture references. And in the present edition are included copious extracts from Bullinger’s Decades, at the suggestion of the esteemed editor of “Bullinger’s Sermons on the Sacraments,” a part of the above work. This seasonable and valuable publication is earnestly recommended to the attention of students in Divinity. It may be asked, what have the writings of one belonging to the Reformed Continental Churches to do with the illustration of the doctrines of the Church of England? It is not needful to enlarge on the high esteem which Bullinger obtained in this country, or necessary to prove the fellowship in doctrine that existed between our own and the foreign Churches of the Reformation, notwithstanding their differences in discipline and ecclesiastical government. The Decades of Bullinger come recommended to us by competent ecclesiastical authority, and are here used as a kind of Church exposition of such points of Christian doctrine as are found in our own Articles. [See the Preface to “Sermons on the Sacraments, by Henry Ballinger, Minister of the Church of Zurich.” Cambridge, 1840] In a Convocation held on the 2nd of December, 1586, among other “Orders for the better increase of learning in the inferior Ministers, and for more diligent preaching and catechizing,” the especial study of these Sermons was enjoined on Curates, under certain regulations to be enforced by the Ordinary. [See ‘Wilkins’s Concilia, v. iv. pp. 321, 322.] Undoubtedly this gives no sanction to some statements which are incidentally introduced in a work written for a foreign Church, but a more unqualified authority is stamped upon its doctrinal expositions than can usually be traced at that period. In consequence of these orders, the edition of 1587, from which the extracts are taken, was prepared from a former translation “by H. I. Student in Divinitie,” “a person of eminency in the Church,” according to Strype. [Strype Ann. II, ii. 144.] The translator affirms, “that there will be found” in these Sermons “such light and instruction for the ignorant; such sweetness and spiritual comfort for consciences; such heavenly delights for souls” that “the more diligently you peruse them, the more delightfully they will please.”
Agreed upon by the Archbishops and Bishops of both Provinces, and the whole Clergy, in the Convocation holden at London in the year 1562, for avoiding of diversities of opinions, and for the establishing of consent, touching true Religion. Reprinted by His Majesty’s commandment, with his Royal Declaration perfixed thereunto.
His Majesty’s Declaration.
Being by God’s ordinance, according to our just title, Defender of the Faith, and Supreme Governor of the Church, within these our Dominions, We hold it most agreeable to this our Kingly office, and our own religious zeal, to conserve and maintain the Church committed to our charge,* in unity of true Religion, and in *the bond of peace; and not to suffer unnecessary disputations, altercations, or questions to be raised, which may nourish faction both in the Church and Commonwealth. We have therefore, upon mature deliberation, and with the advice of so many of our Bishops as might conveniently be called together, thought fit to make this Declaration following.
[*St. Paul could not abide to hear among the Corinthians these words of discord or dissension, I hold of Paul, I of Cephas, and I of Apollos: (1 Cor. 3:4) what would he then say if he heard these words of contention, which be now almost in every man’s mouth? He is a Pharisee – he is a Gospeller – he is of the new sort – he is of the old faith – he is a new-broached brother – he is a good catholic father – he is a papist – he is an heretic. O how the Church is divided! O how the cities be cut and mangled! O how the coat of Christ, that was without seam, is all rent and torn! O body mystical of Christ, where is that holy and happy unity, out of the which whosoever is, he is not in Christ? If one member be pulled from another, where is the body? If the body be drawn from the head, where is the life of the body? We cannot be joined to Christ our Head, except we be glued with concord and charity one to another. For he that is not in this unity is not of the Church of Christ, which is a congregation or unity together, and not a division.
St. Paul saith, That as long as emulation or envying, contention, and factions or sects be among us, we be carnal, and walk according to the fleshly man. (1 Cor. 3:3.) And St. James saith; If ye have bitter emulation or envying, and contention in your hearts, glory not of it: for where contention is, there is unsteadfastness, and all evil deeds. (James 3:14–16.)
And why do we not hear St. Paul, which prayeth us, whereas he might command us, saying, I beseech you in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you will speak all one thing, and that there be no dissension among you; but that you will be one whole body, of one mind, and of one opinion in the truth? (1 Cor. 1:10) If his desire be reasonable and honest, why do we not grant it? If his request be for our profit, why do we refuse it?
And if we list not to hear his petition or prayer, yet let us hear his exhortation; where he saith, I exhort you, that you walk as it becometh the vocation in which you be called, with all submission and meekness, with lenity and softness of mind, bearing with one another in charity; studying to keep the unity of the Spirit by the bond of peace; for there is one body, one Spirit, one faith, one baptism. (Ephes. 4:1–5) There is, saith he, but one body, of the which he can be no lively member, that is at variance with the other members. There is one Spirit which joineth and knitteth all things in one. And how can this one Spirit reign in us, when we among ourselves be divided? There is but one faith; and how can we then say, he is of the old faith, and he is of the new faith? There is but one baptism; and then shall not all they which be baptized be one? Contention causeth division: wherefore it ought not to be among Christians, whom one faith and baptism joineth in an unity.
But if we contemn St. Paul’s request and exhortation, yet at the least let us regard his earnest entreating: in the which he doth very earnestly charge us, and (as I may so speak) conjure us in this form and manner: (Phil. 2:1–3.) If there be any consolation in Christ, if there be any comfort of love, if you have any fellowship of the Spirit, if you have any bowels of pity and compassion, fulfill my joy: being all alike affected, having one charity, being of one mind, of one opinion, that nothing be done by contention, or vain-glory. Who is he, that hath any bowels of pity, that will not be moved with these words so pithy? Whose heart is so stony, that the sword of these words, which be more sharp than any two-edged sword, may not cut and break asunder? Wherefore, let us endeavour ourselves to fulfill St. Paul’s joy here in this place, which shall be at length to our great joy in another place. Hom. xii. 1.]
That the Articles of the Church of England, (which have been allowed and authorized heretofore, and which our Clergy generally have subscribed unto,) do contain the true doctrine of the Church of England, agreeable to God’s word: which We do therefore ratify and confirm, requiring all our loving Subjects to continue in the uniform profession thereof, and prohibiting the least difference from the said Articles; which to that end we command to be new printed, and this Our Declaration to be published therewith.
That We are Supreme Governor of the Church of England: and that if any difference arise about the external policy, concerning the Injunctions, Canons, and other Constitutions whatsoever thereto belonging, the Clergy in their Convocation is to order and settle them, having first obtained leave under our Broad Seal so to do; and We approving their said Ordinances and Constitutions; providing that none be made contrary to the Laws and Customs of the land.
That out of our Princely care that the churchmen may do the work which is proper unto them, the Bishops and Clergy, from time to time in Convocation, upon their humble desire, shall have license under our Broad Seal to deliberate of, and to do, all such things, as being made plain by them, and assented unto by Us, shall concern the settled continuance of the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England, now established; from which We will not endure any varying or departing in the least degree.
That for the present, though some differences have been ill raised, yet We take comfort in this, that all Clergymen within our Realm have always most willingly subscribed to the Articles established; which is an argument to us, that they all agree in the true, usual, literal meaning of the said Articles; and that even in those curious points, in which the present differences lie, men of all sorts take the Articles of the Church of England to be for them; which is an argument again, that none of them intend any desertion of the Articles established.
That therefore in these both curious and unhappy differences, which have for so many hundred years, in different times and places, exercised the Church of Christ [See Article XVII.], We will that all further curious search be laid aside, and these disputes shut up in God’s promises, as they be generally set forth to us in the Holy Scriptures, and the general meaning of the Articles of the Church of England, according to them. And that no man hereafter shall either print, or preach, to draw the Article aside any way, but shall submit to it in the plain and full meaning thereof; and shall not put his own sense or comment to be the meaning of the Article, but shall take it in the literal and grammatical sense.
That if any public Reader in either of our Universities, or any Head or Master of a College, or any other person respectively in either of them, shall affix any new sense to any Article, or shall publicly read, determine, or hold any public disputation, or suffer any such to be held either way, in either the Universities or Colleges respectively; or if any Divine in the Universities shall preach or print any thing either way, other than is already established in Convocation with our Royal assent; he or they the offenders shall be liable to our displeasure, and the Church’s censure in our Commission Ecclesiastical, as well as any other: and We will see there shall be due execution upon them.
Articles of Religion
I. Of Faith in the Holy Trinity.
There is *but one **living and ***true God,
I. De fide in Sacra-Sanctam Trinitatem.
Unus est vivus et verus Deus,
*God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM. Exod. 3:14. – Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord. – And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth; for there is one God, and there is none other but he. Mark 12:29, 32. Thou shalt have no other Gods before me. Exod. 20:3. The LORD (Jehovah) our God (our Elohim) is one LORD (one Jehovah). Deut. 6:4. Who is God save the LORD? Ps. 18:31. Hath not one God created us? Mal. 2:10. There is none other God but one. 1 Cor. 8:4, 6. God is one. Gal. 3:20. Thus saith the LORD, the King of Israel, and his Redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God. I know not any. Isai. 44:6, 8. Rev. 1:8. Look unto me, and be ye saved, all ye ends of the earth, for I am God, and there is none else. Isai. 45:22. One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all. Eph. 4:6. There is one God, and one Mediator. 1 Tim. 2:5. Thou believest that there is one God, thou doest well. James 2:19. Thou art the God, even thou alone. 2 Kings 19:15. Thou art LORD alone. Neh. 9:6. Whose name alone is Jehovah. Ps. 83:18. I, even I, am he, and there is no God with me. Deut. 32:39. Before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me. Isai. 43:10.
*There is one nature, or substance, or soul, or mind, or rather Divine Spirit, (for diversely have wise men, both heathen and Christian, termed God, where indeed by no words he can be properly termed) eternal, without beginning and end, unmeasurable, uncorporal, invisible with the eyes of men, of most excellent majesty, which we call God, whom all people of the world must reverence and worship with highest honour; and in him, as the best and greatest, to settle their hope and affiance. Nowell, p. 31.
**My heart and my flesh crieth out for the living God. Ps. 84:2. Ye are the temple of the living God. 2 Cor. 6:16. He liveth for ever, whose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom is from generation to generation. Dan. 4:34. He is the living God, and stedfast for ever. Dan. 6:26.
***The LORD is the true God, he is the living God, and an everlasting King. The Gods that have not made the heavens and the earth shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens. Jer. 10:10, 11. This is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent. John 17:3. Turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God. 1 Thess. 1:9. We know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life. 1 John 5:20.
*everlasting, **without body, parts, or passions;
aeternus, incorporeus, impartibilis, impassibilis;
*Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. Psal. 90:2. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment, as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed: but thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end. Thou, O LORD, shalt endure for ever; and thy remembrance unto all generations. Ps. 102:26, 27, 12. The everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is weary; there is no searching of his understanding. Isa. 40:23. Abraham called on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God. Gen. 21:33. God—even he that abideth of old. Ps. 55:19. The high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity. Isai. 57:15. He is the living God, and steadfast for ever. Dan. 6:26. The everlasting (αιώνιος) God. Rom. 16:26.
**God is a Spirit. John. 4:24. To whom will ye liken God? Or what likeness will ye compare unto him? Isa. 4:18. We ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man’s device. Acts 17:29. The invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead. Rom. 1:20. Changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image. Rom. 1:23. God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent. Numb. 23:19. God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands. Acts 17:24. The heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house that I have builded. 1 Kings 8:27. The King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God. 1 Tim. 1:17. Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard, that the everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth, fainteth not, neither is weary. Isai. 40:28. God cannot be tempted with evil. James 1:13. If thou sinnest, what doest thou against him? or if thy transgressions be multiplied, what doest thou unto him? If thou be righteous, what givest thou him? or what receiveth he of thine hand? Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou art; and thy righteousness may profit the Son of Man. Job 35:6, 7, 8. Can a man be profitable unto God, as he that is wise may be profitable unto himself? Is it any pleasure to the Almighty that thou art righteous? or is it gain to him that thou makest thy ways perfect? Will he reprove thee for fear of thee? Will he enter with thee into judgment? Job 22:2, 3, 4.
*of infinite power, **wisdom, and ***goodness,
immensae potentiae, sapientiae, ac bonitatis,
*The LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God. Gen. 17:1. Great is our LORD, and of great power: his understanding is infinite. Psalm 147:5. He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion. Jer. 10:12, 51:15. He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength. Job 9:4. Behold, God is mighty, and despiseth not any: he is mighty in strength and wisdom. Job 36:5. His divine power hath given to us all things that pertain unto life and godliness. 2 Pet. 1:3. We are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation. 1 Pet. 1:5. With God all things are possible. Mark 10:27. Luke 1:37. Able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us. Eph. 3:20. The exceeding greatness of his power to usward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power. Eph. 2:19.
*On God alone doth true faith bend and lean. God is everlasting, chiefly good, wise, just, mighty, and true of word. And that doth he testify by his works and word. This everlasting God can do all things, knoweth all things, is present in all places, loveth mankind exceedingly, doth provide for all men, and also governeth and disposeth all things. Faith, therefore, which is a confidence of God’s goodwill and of his aid in all necessities, and of the true salvation of mankind, bindeth on God alone, and cannot lean to any other creature, in whom the things are not that faith requireth. B. i. 4.
Suppose not that I do take upon me to declare unto you the excellent power, or the incomparable wisdom of Almighty God, as though I would have you believe that it might be expressed unto you by words: Nay, it may not be thought, that that thing may be comprehended by man’s words, that is incomprehensible. And too much arrogancy it were for dust and ashes to think that he can worthily declare his Maker. It passeth far the dark understanding and wisdom of a mortal man, to speak sufficiently of that Divine Majesty, which the Angels cannot understand. We shall, therefore, lay apart to speak of the profound and unsearchable nature of Almighty God; rather acknowledging our weakness, than rashly to attempt what is above all man’s capacity to compass. Hom. xxix. 1.
**With him is wisdom and strength, he hath counsel and understanding. Job 12:13. Blessed be the name of God for ever and ever: for wisdom and might are his. He giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding. Dan. 2:20, 21. He is perfect in knowledge. Job 37:16. His understanding is infinite. Ps. 147:5. O the depth of the riches, both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! Rom. 11:33. Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen. 1 Tim. 1:17.
***The LORD, the LORD God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth. Exod. 34:6. The goodness of God endureth continually. Ps. 52:1. Thou preventest with the blessings of goodness. Ps. 21:3. The goodness of God leadeth to repentance. Rom. 2:4. Good and upright is the LORD; therefore will he teach sinners in the way. Ps. 25:8. Thou, LORD, art good, and ready to forgive; and plenteous in mercy unto all them that call upon thee. Ps. 86:5. The earth is full of the goodness of the Lord. Ps. 33:5. The LORD is good to all: and his tender mercies are over all his works. Ps. 145:9. Truly God is good to Israel, even to such as are of a clean heart. Ps. 73:1. My people shall be satisfied with my goodness, saith the LORD. Jer. 31:14. O taste and see that the Lord is good; blessed is the man that trusteth in him. Ps. 34:8. The hand of our God is upon all them for good that seek him; but his power and his wrath is against all them that forsake him. Ezra 8:22.
the *Maker and **Preserver of all things, both visible and invisible.
Creator et Conservator omnium tum visibilium, tum invisibilium.
*He that built all things is God. Heb. 3:4. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Gen. 1:1. Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host; the earth and all things that are therein, the sea, and all that is therein, and thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth thee. Neb. 9:6. By him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible; whether they be thrones or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: and he is before all things, and by him all things consist. Col. 1:16, 17. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power; for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created. Rev. 4:11.
*God, the most good and mighty Father, at the beginning, out of nothing, by the power of his word, that is, of Jesus Christ his Son, framed and made this whole visible world, and all things, whatsoever they be, that are contained therein, and also the uncorporal spirits, whom we call angels. Nowell, p. 37.
**He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heavens by his discretion. The portion of Jacob is not like them: [graven images] for he is the former of all things. Jer. 10:12. 16. Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein: I, the LORD, have called thee in righteousness. Isa. 42:5, 6. The LORD, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth. Gen. 14:22. To the end thou mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth. Exod. 8:22. The pillars of the earth are the LORD’S, and he hath set the world upon them. He will keep the feet of his saints. 1 Sam. 2:8, 9. In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind. Job 12:10. Upholding all things by the word of his power. Heb. 1:3. In the beginning God (Elohim) created the heaven and the earth. Gen. 1:1. God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. Gen. 1: 26. Have we not all one father? Hath not one God created us? Mal. 2:10. God by his Son made the worlds. Heb. 1:2. By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth. Ps. 33:6.
**Whereas it is much more excellent to maintain and preserve things created, than to have once created them; we must certainly believe, that when he had so framed the world and all creatures, he from thenceforth hath preserved and yet preserveth them. For all things would run to ruin, and fall to nothing, unless by his virtue, and, as it were, by his hand, they were upholden. We also assuredly believe that the whole order of nature, and changes of things, which are falsely reputed the alterations of fortune, do hang all upon God: that God guideth the course of the heaven, upholdeth the earth, tempereth the seas, and ruleth this whole world, and that all things obey his divine power, and by his divine power all things are governed: that he is the author of fair weather and of tempest, of rain and of drought, of fruitfulness and of barrenness, of health and of sickness: that of all things that belong to the sustentation and preserving of our life, and which are desired either for necessary use or honest pleasure: finally of all things that nature needeth, he hath ever given, and yet most largely giveth abundance and plenty with most liberal hand: to this end verily that we should so use them as becometh mindful and kind children. Nowell, p. 37.
**If his especial goodness were not every where present, every creature should be out of order, and no creature should have his property, wherein he was first created. He is therefore invisible every where, and in every creature, and filleth both heaven and earth with his presence: in the fire to give heat; in the water to give moisture; in the earth, to give fruit; in the heart, to give his strength; yea in our bread and drink is he, to give us nourishment, where without him the bread and drink cannot give sustenance, nor the herb health: Wisd. 16:26. Deut. 8:3. Wisd. 16:12. It is not therefore the power of the creatures, which worketh their effects, but the goodness of God which worketh in them. In his word truly do all things consist. Hom. xxix. 1.
*And in unity of this Godhead there be three Persons, of one substance, power, and eternity; the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.
Et in untate hujus divinae naturae tres sunt Personae, ejusdem essentiae, potentiae, ac aeternitatis, Pater, Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus.
*Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD. Deut. 6:4. There is one God; and there is none other but he. Mark 12:32. To us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. 1 Cor. 8:6. On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel, saying unto them: The LORD bless thee, and keep thee: The LORD make his face shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee: The LORD lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace. And they shall put my name upon the children of Israel; and I will bless them. Num. 6:23–27. In the beginning God (plural) created (singular) the heaven and the earth. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil. Gen. 1:1, 2, 26; 3:22. By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath (or Spirit) of his mouth. Ps. 33:6. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. John 1:1–3. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting upon him; and, lo, a voice from heaven saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Matt. 3:16, 17. Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened, and the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape (σωματικω είδει) like (ωσει) a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son (ο υιός μον ο αγαπητος); in thee I am well pleased. Luke 3:21, 22. cf. Matt. 17:5. There are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. 1 John 5:7. We were eye witnesses (επόπται) of his majesty. For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount. 2 Pet. 1:16–18. We beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father (μονόγενους παρα πατρος) John 1:14, his own Son (του ιδίου υιου) Rom. 8:32 – said that God was his Father, making himself equal with God. John 5:18. I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another comforter, that he may abide with you for ever: even the Spirit of truth. John 14:16. The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom (ο) the Father will send in my name, he (εκεινος) shall teach you all things. 26. When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me. John 15:26. It seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us. Acts 15:28. (cf. Matt. 11:26, even so, Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight). Dividing to every man severally as he will. 1 Cor. 12:11. The Spirit searcheth all things, even the deep things of God. 1 Cor. 2:10. Jesus spake unto them, saying, All power (εξουσία) is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore and teach (μαθητεύσατε) all nations, baptizing them in the name (εις το όνομα) of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded (ενετειλάμην) you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Matt. 28:18–20. I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent me. John 8:16. I am in my Father. John 14:20. I and my Father are one. John 10:30. That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent him. As the Father hath life in himself, so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself. John 5:23, 26. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, [Jesus Christ, see Rev. 22:13, 16] which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. Rev. 1:8. The inspiration of the Almighty [the Holy Ghost, see 1 Cor. 2:10; 12:8; 2 Pet. 1:21] giveth them understanding. Job 32:8. – The inward and spiritual grace of Baptism ascribed to the FATHER: According to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost. Tit. 3:5. Baptism is — the answer (επερώτημα) of a good conscience toward God. 1 Pet. 3:21. – To the SON: Christ loved the Church and gave himself for it; that he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word. Eph. 5:25, 26. As many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. Gal. 3:27. We are buried with him by baptism into death, Num. 6:4. We have been planted together in the likeness of his death. ver. 5. – To the HOLY GHOST, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. John 3:5. Tit. 3:5, as above. Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ. 1 Pet. 1:2. Through him (Christ) we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father. Eph. 2:18. Because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Gal. 4:6. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. 2 Cor. 13:14.
*We believe that there is one certain nature and divine power, which we call God: and that the same is divided into three equal persons, into the Father, into the Son, and into the Holy Ghost; and that they be all of one power, of one majesty, of one eternity, of one Godhead, and of one substance. And although these three persons be so divided, that neither the Father is the Son, nor the Son is the Holy Ghost, or the Father: yet nevertheless we believe that there is but one very God: and that the same one God hath created heaven and earth, and all things contained under heaven. Jewell.
In one substance of God we must consider, the Father which of himself begat the Son even from eternity, the beginning and first author of all things; the Son, even from eternity begotten of the Father, which is the eternal wisdom of God the Father; the Holy Ghost proceeding from them both, as the power of God spread abroad through all things, but yet so as it continually abideth in itself: and yet that God is not therefore divided. For of these three persons, none goeth before the other in time, in greatness, or in dignity; but the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, three distinct Persons, in eternity of like continuance, in power, even in dignity equal, and in Godhead one. There is therefore one eternal, immortal, almighty, glorious, the best, the greatest God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. For so hath the universal number of Christians, which is called the Catholic Church, taught us by the holy Scriptures concerning God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; where otherwise the infinite depth of this mystery is so great that it cannot with mind be conceived, much less with words be expressed, wherein therefore is required a simplicity of Christian faith ready to believe, rather than sharpness of wit to search, or the office of the tongue to express so secret and hidden a mystery. Nowell, p 35.
In these Books we shall find the Father from whom, the Son by whom, and the Holy Ghost in whom, all things have their being and keeping up; and these three persons to be but one God, and one substance. Hom. i. 1.
For as there are three several and sundry Persons in the Deity; so have they three several and sundry offices proper unto each of them; the Father to create, the Son to redeem, the Holy Ghost to sanctify and regenerate. Hom. xxviii. 1.
And the Catholic faith is this, That we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing the Substance. For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is all one, the Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal. Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost. The Father uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Ghost uncreate. The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the Holy Ghost incomprehensible. The Father eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Ghost eternal: and yet they are not three eternals, but one eternal. As also there are not three incomprehensibles, nor three uncreated; but one uncreated, and one incomprehensible. So likewise the Father is Almighty, the Son Almighty, and the Holy Ghost Almighty: and yet they are not three Almighties, but one Almighty. So the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God; and yet they are not three Gods, but one God. So likewise the Father is Lord, the Son Lord, and the Holy Ghost Lord: and yet not three Lords, but one Lord. For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every Person by himself to be God and Lord; so are we forbidden by the Catholic Religion to say, There be three Gods, or three Lords. And in this Trinity none is afore or after other, none is greater or less than another; but the whole three Persons are co-eternal together, and co-equal. So that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, is to be worshipped. He therefore that will be saved, must thus think of the Trinity. Athan. Creed.
# O God the Father, of heaven, have mercy upon us miserable sinners. O God the Son, Redeemer of the world, have mercy upon us miserable sinners, O God the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son, have mercy upon us miserable sinners. O holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, three persons, and one God, have mercy upon us miserable sinners. Litany.
Who art one God, one Lord; not one only person, but three persons in one substance. For that which we believe of the glory of the Father, the same we believe of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, without any difference or inequality. Therefore with Angels and Archangels, and with all the company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious name; evermore praising thee, and saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of thy glory: Glory be to thee, O Lord most High. Amen. Com. Service.
Almighty and everlasting God, who hast given unto us thy servants grace, by the confession of a true Faith, to acknowledge the glory of the eternal Trinity, and in the power of the Divine Majesty to worship the Unity; We beseech thee, that thou wouldest keep us steadfast in this Faith, and evermore defend us from all adversities; who livest and reignest one God, world without end. Amen. Collect for Trinity Sunday.
Unto God’s gracious mercy and protection we commit thee. The Lord bless thee, and keep thee. The Lord make his face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee. The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace both now and evermore. Amen. Visitation of the Sick.
God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy Ghost, bless, preserve, and keep you; the Lord mercifully with his favour look upon you; and so fill you with all spiritual benediction and grace, that ye may so live together in this life, that in the world to come ye may have life everlasting. Amen. Marriage Service.
The peace of God, which passeth all understanding, keep your hearts and minds in the knowledge and love of God, and of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord: and the blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, he amongst you, and remain with you always. Amen. Com. Service.
Thus far, not without trembling we have intreated of the most holy mystery of the reverend Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, which we have learned out of the Scriptures: and here now we will stay, humbly worshipping this unity in trinity and trinity in unity. And let us keep in mind and acknowledge this distinction or division most praisefully declared in the Scriptures, and the unity also commended unto us with exceeding great diligence. For in the Scripture the beginning of doing, and the flowing fountain and wellspring of all things is attributed to the Father: wisdom, counsel, and the very dispensation in doing things is ascribed to the Son: and the force and effectual power of working is assigned to the Holy Ghost. Howbeit, let us take heed, lest through the distinction we separate the unity of the substance of God. For there is but one God in whom those properties are. It is but one fire, though there be three things seen in it, light, brightness, and heat. For these rise together, and cease all at once. The light goeth not before the brightness, neither the brightness before the heat. And though one thing be attributed to the light, another thing to the brightness, and a third thing to the heat; yet they work inseparable. Therefore when we read that God created the world, we understand that the Father, from whom are all things, by the Son, by whom are all things, in the Holy Ghost, in whom are all things, created the world. And when we read that the Son became flesh, suffered, died, and rose again for our salvation, we believe that the Father and the Holy Ghost (though they were not partakers of his incarnation and passion) yet notwithstanding that they wrought our salvation by the Son, whom we believe never to have been separated from them. And when sins are said to be forgiven in the Holy Ghost, we believe that this benefit, and all other benefits of our blessedness are inseparably given and bestowed upon us, from one, only true living and everlasting God, who is the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. To whom be praise and thanksgiving for ever and ever. Amen. B. iv. 8.
II. Of the Word, or Son of God, which was made very Man.
*The Son, which is the **Word of the Father, ***begotten from everlasting of the Father,
II. De Verbo, sive Filio Dei, qui verus Homo factus est.
Filius, qui est Verbum Patris, ab aeterno a Patre genitus,
*The Lord possessed (compare the Hebrew with Gen. 4:1) me in the beginning of his way, (the first-born of every creature πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως. Col. 1:15. The beginning of the creation, η αρχη της κτίσεως, of God. Rev. 3:14.) before his works of old. (of old implies eternity. Ps. 93:2). I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When there were no depths, I was brought forth, &c.; then I was by him, as one brought up with him; and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before him. Prov. 8:22 to 30. Lo, a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Matt. 3:17. And devils came out of many, crying out, and saying: Thou art Christ the Son of God. Luke 4:41. Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. Matt. 16:16. For the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby. John 11:4. The living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father. John 6:57. He made himself the Son of God. John 19:7.
*I believe in God, the Father, &c. and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord. Apost. Creed. The Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is all one; the glory equal, the majesty co-eternal. Such as the Father is, such is the Son. The Father uncreate, the Son uncreate. The Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible. The Father eternal, the Son eternal. The Father is Almighty, the Son Almighty. The Father is God, the Son is God. The Father is Lord, the Son is Lord. Athan. Creed.
It is certain, that the Jews accused our Saviour for none other cause of high treason committed against God’s majesty, than for that he named himself the natural, not the adopted Son of God (John 19:7). John 5:18 — Making himself equal with God (or God’s fellow). Lo, thou hast the manner how he called himself the Son of God, not by adoption, or reputation, but by nature and substance. B. iv. 6.
**In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. John 1:1–3. His name is called, The Word of God. Rev. 19:13.
***Unto which of the Angels, said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? and again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son? and again, when he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world, he saith, and let all the angels of God worship him. Heb. 1:5, 6. The Word was made flesh, and dwelt amongst us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth. John 1:14. Being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person. Heb. 1:3. Whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting. Micah 5:2. Before Abraham was, I am. John 8:58.
***I believe in God, the Father Almighty, &c. and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of his Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made ; being of one substance with the Father. Nicene Creed.
The Son is of the Father alone, not made, nor created, but begotten. Athan. Creed.
Thou art the King of glory, O Christ. Thou art the everlasting Son of the Father. Morn. Prayer.
the *very and eternal God,
verus et aeternus Deus,
*God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son, hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life. – That ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of God. – We are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life. 1 John 5:11, 12, 13, 20. The Word was God. John 1:1. God was manifest (Gr. manifested) in the flesh. 1 Tim. 3:16. In him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily. Col. 2:9. They shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. Matt. 1:23. Isa. 7:14. His name shall be called, – The Mighty God. Isa. 9:6. Mighty to save. Isa. 63:1. Christ, who is Over all, God blessed for ever. Rom. 9:5. Feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood. Acts 20:28. When ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods (τοις μη φύσει ουσι θεοις): but now, after that ye have known God, &c. Gal. 4:8. Therefore Christ is φύσει θεος. Ye turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God. 1 Thess. 1:9. cf. Matt. 16:16. 1 John 5:20. Many of the children of Israel shall he (John the Baptist) turn to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias. Luke 1:16. cf. Mal. 4:5. Isai. 35:4. Hos. 1:7. Mal. 3:1. Luke 2:17, 26. Acts 13:24. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited επεσκέψατο and redeemed his people. – Through the tender mercy of our God, whereby the day-spring (or sun rising, or branch. Zach. 3:8. Isai. 11:1. Mal. 4:2. Num. 24:17.) from on high hath visited (επεσκέψατο) us. Luke 1:68, 78. How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, The LORD said unto my Lord, &c. Matt. 22:43, 44. Ps. 110:1. cf. John 20:28. An apostle, not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ. Gal. 1:1. The names given to Christ. GOD (θεος and ο θεος) John 1:1. Acts 20:28. 1 Tim. 3:16. The great God. Tit. 2:13. The true God. 1 John 5:20. God over all (επι πάντων) blessed for ever. Rom. 9:5. The Highest. Luke 1:76. LORD (ο κύριος, lxx. Jehovah.) My Lord and my God. John 20:28. The only Lord (δεσπότην) God and our Lord Jesus Christ. Jud. 4. He is Lord of all. Acts 10:36. The Lord of glory. 1 Cor. 2:8. cf. Acts 7:2. The Lord from heaven. 1 Cor. 15:47. God that made the world and all things therein – is Lord of heaven and earth. Acts 17:24. All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Matt. 28:18. KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS. Rev. 19:16. – I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, &c. Exod. 20:2. The LORD alone did lead him, and there was no strange God with him. Deut. 32:12. The only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ. I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed them that believed not. Jude 5. Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents. 1 Cor. 10:9. cf. Deut. 6:16. Ps. 78:18. Heb. 3:8. A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear. This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness (cf. Exod. 19:3, 17; 17:2, 7.) – to whom our fathers would not obey, but thrust him from them. Acts 7:38, 39. That ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me. I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no Saviour. Isai. 43:10, 11. There is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; there is none beside me. Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else. I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return. That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear. Isai, 45:21, 22. This is applied to Christ in Rom. 14:11. who is called salvation. Gen. 49:18. Isai. 52:10. Having salvation. Zach. 9:9. A Saviour. Luke 2:11. Neither is there salvation (η σωτηρία) in any other. Acts 4:12. That we might be made the righteousness of God in him. 2 Cor. 5:21. To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen. Jude 25. Thou being a man makest thyself God. John 10:33.
*Lo, what could be spoken more plainly? Thou makest thyself God. And what, I pray you, had he spoken, whereof they gathered these things. I give unto my sheep everlasting life, neither shall they perish for ever, neither shall any pluck them out of my hand. My Father which gave them me is greater than all: and none can pull them out of my Father’s hand. I and the Father are one. (John 10:28–30.) To give life everlasting doth belong to the power of God: to preserve, and so to preserve that none may be able to pluck them out of his hands, belongeth to the same power. Now the Lord proveth this, saying, with this agreement or reason, None is able to pull the sheep out of my Father’s hands: therefore none can pull them out of my hands. The proof of this antecedent: because the Father is greater than all: that is to say, is the greatest of all: whose divine power is above all. The proof of his consequent, because I and my Father are one, to wit, not in will and agreement only, but in majesty also and power, whereof we do at this present entreat, not of concord or agreement, but of power to make alive and preserve. Touching which the Lord himself most plentifully discourseth throughout the whole fifth chapter of St. John’s Gospel, shewing that he forgiveth sins, that by his power he maketh alive, and raiseth up from the dead, even as his Father doth: therefore that he is of one and the same divine power and majesty with God the Father. These things are so evident, plain, and manifest, that albeit we had none other testimony, yet these may abundantly suffice to prove the assertion of the true Divinity or very Godhead of the Son of God, that the Son indeed is true and very God. B. iv. 6.
and *of one substance with the Father,
ac Patri consubstantialis,
*I and my Father are one. John 10:30. The Father is in me, and I in him. John 10:38. Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God. Phil. 2:6. He that seeth me, seeth him that sent me. John. 12:45. Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the LORD of hosts. Zach. 13:7. He said that God was his Father, making himself equal with God. John 5:18. I proceeded forth and came from God. John 8:42.
*O Lord, the only-begotten Son Jesu Christ; O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. – For thou only art holy, thou only art the Lord, thou only, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in the glory of God the Father. Com. Service.
We confess that we believe, that is, that we put our whole hope and confidence of life and salvation as well in the Son as in the Father. And therefore we say plainly, I believe in Jesus Christ; even as before we said, I believe in God, &c. If he be the Son, yea, and that too the Son of God, then is his nature and substance a divine nature and substance. Very well, therefore, do the holy fathers say, that the Son is of the same substance and being with the Father. B. i. 7.
Neither can that equality (John 5:18) any where else have place, than in the substance. For the Jews understood that whereof the Arians will be ignorant, that the Lord after a certain peculiar and special manner calleth God his Father, to wit, ίδιον, his proper or very own Father, by nature or by birth, of whom the Son being naturally begotten, is naturally and consubstantial with his Father. He proceeded from the Father (John 8:42), such a one in substance as the Father is, surely light of light, very God of very God. If he be the image of the invisible God, he must needs be fellow or co-equal with God. For in another place Paul calleth the same Christ, The ingraven form of God, and his express image, and answerable in all respects most truly to his pattern or first figure. An image verily and likeness is of things that are not unequal or unlike, but of things equal and like. B. iv. 6.
About the word Homoousius, which the Latinists agreeably have translated consubstantialis consubstantial, the ecclesiastical history doth testify, that there hath been long and much altercation among the ancient writers. What it signifieth, and how it was taken of that most famous and solemn synod of Nice, the most learned and godly Eusebius Pamphili, Bishop of Caesarea, briefly and pithily expounded in this sort: In that the Son is said to be consubstantial with the Father, it hath an express signification: for because the Son of God hath no similitude or likeness with creatures that were made, but is resembled or likened to the Father alone, who begat him; neither is he of any other substance, essence, or being than of the Father. B. iv. 6.
*took Man’s nature in the womb of the blessed Virgin, of her substance:
in utero beatae Virginis, ex illius substantia naturam humanam assumpsit
*I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. 2 Sam. 7:12. The LORD hath sworn in truth unto David; he will not turn from it; Of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne. Ps. 132:11. David knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne. Acts 2:30. Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel; which being interpreted is, God with us. Isa. 7:14 and Matt. 1:22, 23. When the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman. Gal. 4:4. Blessed is the fruit of thy womb. Luke 1:42. The Word was made flesh. John 1:14. Every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God. 1 John 4:3. Forasmuch as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same. Verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham. In all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren. Heb. 2:14, 16, 17.
*Jesus Christ, being true and natural God, equal and of one substance with the Father, did at the time appointed take upon him our frail nature, in the blessed Virgin’s womb; and that of her undefiled substance, that so he might be a mediator between God and us, and pacify his wrath. Hom. xxxii. 1.
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, very God, and the son of the Virgin, very man – which was conceived of the Holy Ghost, and born of the nature of the holy, chaste, and undefiled Virgin Mary; and of the same mother he was so born and nourished as other infants be, saving that he was altogether pure, and free from all contagion of sin. Nowell, p. 41.
When thou tookest upon thee to deliver man thou didst not abhor the Virgin’s womb. Morn. Prayer.
The right faith is, that we believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man; God of the substance of the Father, begotten before the worlds: and Man of the substance of his mother, born in the world; perfect God, and perfect Man, of a reasonable soul, and human flesh subsisting; equal to the Father as touching his Godhead, and inferior to the Father as touching his manhood. Who although he be God and Man, yet he is not two, but one Christ. One not by conversion of the Godhead into the flesh, but by taking of the manhood into God: one altogether, not by confusion of substance, but by unity of Person. For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man, so God and Man is one Christ. Athan. Creed.
He is called seed, Gen. 3:14, to verify his true human nature: and he is termed the seed of the woman, not of the man, because of his conception by the Holy Ghost, and his birth of the Virgin Mary. By angels, Heb. 2:16, doubtless excluding all manner of spiritual substances: by the seed of Abraham, understanding the very substance itself of the flesh of Man. B. iv. 6.
He, therefore, became one with us by the participation, that is to say, it pleased him to be incarnate for this cause, that he might join us again to God, who for sin were separated from God, and receive us into the fellowship of himself, and all other his goodness beside. B. i. 7.
Arius taught, that the Son of God took flesh only without soul, and that the word was in place of the soul. And Apollinarius did attribute unto Christ a soul, but he took away the mind, denying that it was reasonable. The Scripture doth both attribute unto Christ a soul, and taketh not away the mind from the soul. Matt. 20:28. His life or soul, 26:38, John 12:27, Luke 22:15. B. iv. 6.
so that *two whole and perfect Natures, that is to say, the Godhead and Manhood, were joined together in one Person, never to be divided,
ita ut duae naturae, divina et humana, integre atque perfecte in unitate personae fuerint inseparabiliter conjunctae,
*Unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given. Isa. 9:6. They shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. Matt. 1:23. The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth. John 1:14. God was in Christ. 2 Cor. 5:19. In him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily. Col. 2:9. God was manifest in the flesh. 1 Tim. 3:16. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 1 Cor. 15:47. Jesus Christ being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men. Phil. 2:6, 7. The Church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood. Acts 20:28. Made of the seed of David according to the flesh; and declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead. Rom. 1:3, 4. I will raise unto David a righteous branch, &c. and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. Jer. 23:5, 6. Without father, without mother, without descent (Gr. without pedigree) having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God. Heb. 7:3, Gen. 14:18, Ps. 110:4. Every Spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God. 1 John 4:2. The Word was made flesh. John 1:14. Flesh means the whole and entire nature of manhood. Gen. 6:12, Isai. 40:6, Joel 2:28, Matt. 24:22, Luke 3:6, Acts 2:17, Rom. 3:20, 1 Cor. 1:29. The branch of David is the LORD our righteousness. Jer. 23:5, 6. The Son of man is the Son of the living God. Matt. 16. Son of Mary is Emmanuel. Matt. 1:21, 23. Truly this man was the Son of God. Mark 15:39. That holy thing which was born of Mary, was called the son of God. Luke 1:35. The Son of Mary is Christ the Lord. Luke 2:11. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 1 Cor. 15:47. I am the first and the last: I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore. Rev. 1:17, 18. Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever. Heb. 13:8. This man because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood (or, which passeth not from one to another). Wherefore he is able to save them to the uttermost (or, evermore) that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. Heb. 7:24, 25. The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever. Rev. 11:15. Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever. Rev. 5:13.
*We are evidently taught in the Scripture, that our Lord and Saviour Christ consisteth of two several natures; of his manhood, being thereby perfect man; of his Godhead, being thereby perfect God. In that he did hunger and thirst, eat and drink, sleep and wake; in that he preached his Gospel to the people; in that he wept and sorrowed for Jerusalem; in that he payed tribute for himself and Peter; in that he died and suffered death: what other thing did he else declare, but only this, that he was perfect man as we are? For which cause he is called in holy Scripture sometime the Son of David, sometime the Son of man, sometime the Son of Mary, sometime the Son of Joseph, and so forth. Now in that be forgave sins; in that he wrought miracles; in that he did cast out devils; in that he healed men with his only word; in that he knew the thoughts of men’s hearts; in that he had the seas at his commandment; in that he walked on the water; in that he rose from death to life; in that he ascended into heaven, and so forth; what other thing did he shew therein, but only that he was perfect God? But because no creature, in that he is only a creature, hath or may have power to destroy death, and give life; to overcome hell, and purchase heaven; to remit sins, and give righteousness; therefore it was needful that our Messias, whose proper duty and office that was, should be not only full and perfect man, but also full and perfect God: to the intent he might more fully and perfectly make satisfaction for mankind. God saith, “This is my well-beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” (Matt. 3:17.) By which place we learn, that Christ appeased and quenched the wrath of his Father, not in that he was only the Son of man, but much more in that he was the Son of God. Hom. xxiv.
The end of his coming was to save and deliver his people – to fulfill the Law for us – to bear witness unto the truth – to teach and preach the words of his Father – to give light unto the world – to call sinners to repentance – to refresh them that labour and be heavy laden – to cast out the prince of this world – to reconcile us in the body of his flesh – to dissolve the works of the Devil: last of all, to become a propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.
Necessary it was that what man had offended against God, man should atone and satisfy it; which heavy burden none but the man Jesus Christ was able to take up and bear. And other mediator could there not be to set man at one with God, and to make peace between them, but Jesus Christ, both God and man. Therefore being made man, he did, as it were, put upon him our person, that he might therein take upon him, bear, perform, and fulfill the parts of our salvation. Nowell, p. 45.
Again we must by all means take heed, lest through defending and retaining the properties of the two natures, we divide and pull asunder the unity of the person: as though there were two Christs, whereof the one should be subject to suffering and mortal, the other not subject to suffering and immortal. Since God of his own nature is immortal, truly he cannot die: but if any man for that cause should absolutely deny that God was crucified and offered, yea and died for us, he should gainsay Paul, saying: Had they known it they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. And Paul saith, that God hath purchased to himself a church with his own blood.
Again, he doth not divide the person of our Mediator God and man, whosoever for unity’s sake of natures doth not so far extend his humanity as his divinity is extended. Therefore our Lord after the manner of his very body, is in heaven and not in earth; but according to his infinite Godhead he is every where, in heaven and in earth. Man consisteth of soul and body, and these most contrary in natures between themselves make one person, not two. And whosoever attributeth and defendeth that which is proper to either of them doth not divide the person. B. iv. 6.
Entiches admitted one nature only in Christ, and the same made (that is) meddled or confounded together of a divine and human nature: from whom the Monothelites were not far beyond, acknowledging only one will in Christ. Nestorius, confessing two natures, seemeth to affirm that there are so many persons, teaching that the word is not united to the flesh into the selfsame person, but that it only dwelleth therein: whereupon also he forbad the Holy Virgin to be called God’s mother. Against whom the common assertion of the whole church, holding opinion according to the Scripture, hath taught that two natures in Christ, and the properties of those natures, are to be confessed, which are so coupled together into one undivided person, that neither the divine nature is changed into the human, nor the human into the divine, but either of them retain or keep their own nature, and both of them subsist in the unity of person. For Christ according to the disposition of his divine nature, is one and the selfsame immortal: according to the disposition of his human nature, mortal: and the selfsame immortal God and mortal man is the only Saviour of the world. B. iv. 6.
whereof is one *Christ, **very God, and ***very man;
ex quibus est unus Christus, verus Deus, et verus homo,
*To us there is one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. 1 Cor. 8:6. And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. Matt. 16:16. Unto you is born this day, in the city of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. Luke 2:11. We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ (or, the Anointed). John 1:11, 4:25. Exalt the horn of his Anointed. 1 Sam. 2:10. against the LORD, and against his Anointed. Ps. 2:2. For thy servant David’s sake turn not away the face of thine Anointed. There will I make the horn of David to bud: I have ordained a lamp for mine Anointed. Ps. 132:10, 17. Unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks – after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off. Dan. 9:25, 26. God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. Ps. 45:7. cf. Heb. 1:9. The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek. Isai. 61:1. cf. Luke 4:18. Seventy weeks are determined – to anoint the most Holy. Dan. 9:24. Thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed. Acts 4:27. God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power. Acts 10:38. Of his fullness have all we received, and grace for grace. Grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. John 1:16, 17.
*Q. What meaneth the name of Christ? A. It is as much as to say Anointed; whereby is meant that he is the Sovereign King, Priest, and Prophet. – In the name of Christ are contained those three offices which the Son of God received of his Father, and fulfilled to make us partners with him of all the fruit thereof. Nowell, p. 43, 44.
**Adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour. Tit. 2:10. Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ. Tit. 2:13. They stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. Acts 7:59. Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever. Heb. 1:8. By him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth. He is before all things, and by him all things consist. Col. 1:16, 17. He that built all things is God. Heb. 3:4. Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us. 1 John 3:16. This is the true God. and eternal life. 1 John 5:20. That eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us. 1 John 1:2. Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and today, and for ever. Heb. 13:8.
***The birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. – She brought forth her firstborn Son. Matt. 1:18, 25. The child grew, and waxed strong in spirit. Luke 2:40. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungred. Matt. 4:2. Jesus saith, I thirst. John 19:28. Jesus wept. John 11:35. Luke 19:41. He was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow, and they awake him. Mark 4:38. Jesus bowed his head, and gave up the ghost. – And when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs. John 19:30, 33. Called man (homo) 1 Tim. 2:5. Luke 23:47, &c. The Son of Man. Dan. 7:13, Matt. 8:20, 16:13, &c.; Rev. 1:13. Flesh. John 1:14. Man (vir) Zech. 6:12. Acts 17:31. A child. Isai. 9:6, Acts 4:27. Son of Abraham, of David, &c. Matt. 1:1. Firstborn of Mary. Luke 2:7. Seed of the woman. Gen. 3:15. Seed of Abraham. Gen. 22:18, Heb. 2:16. Seed of Isaac. Gen. 26:4. Seed of Jacob. Gen. 28:14. Lion of (ο ων εκ) the tribe of Judah. Rev. 5:5. Seed of David. 2 Sam. 7:12. The fruit of the loins of David. Acts 2:30. The fruit of his body. Ps. 132:11. A rod out of the stem of Jesse, a branch out of his roots. Isa. 11:1. The man whose name is the branch. Zech. 6:12. A righteous branch unto David. Jer. 23:5, 33:15. Having what are essential parts of man, a soul and body. The Son of man came – to give his life (or soul) a ransom for many. Matt. 20:28. My soul is exceeding sorrowful. Matt. 26:38. Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit. Luke 23:46. My body is given for you. Luke 22:19. The body of his flesh. Col. 1:22. Having flesh and bones. Luke 24:39, John 19:33. My blood is shed for many. Matt. 26:28. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life. John 6:54. Forthwith came there out (of his pierced side) blood and water. John 19:34. The church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood. Acts 20:28.
who *truly suffered, **was crucified, ***dead, and ****buried,
qui vere passus est, crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus,
*Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit. 1 Pet. 3:18. He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised and we esteemed him not. He poured out his soul unto death; and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many. Isai. 53:3, 12. For as much then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind. 1 Pet. 4:1.
*He of his own accord and willingly suffered, to the intent with this most sweet sacrifice to appease his Father toward mankind, and to pay and suffer the pains due to us, and by this means to deliver us from the same. Neither is it unused among men one to promise, and be surety, yea sometime to suffer, for another. But with Christ, as our surety so suffering for us, God dealt, as it were, with extremity of law: but to us whose sins, deservings, punishments, and due pains he laid upon Christ, he used singular lenity, gentleness, clemency, and mercy. Nowell, p. 47.
Q. Sith he had the power to choose his own death, why should he be crucified rather than suffer any other kind of death? A. First for his Father’s will, whereunto he conformed himself, and which had been long afore in old time uttered and declared by God, by so many prophecies and oracles, signs and tokens. Moreover, his will was to suffer extremity for us that had deserved all extremity; for that kind of death was of all other most accursed and abominable, which death yet he chiefly chose to die for us, to the intent to take upon himself the grievous curse, wherein our sins had bound us, and thereby to deliver us from the same curse. Nowell, p. 50.
Christ suffered not only a common death in the sight of men, but also was touched with the horror of eternal death: he fought and wrestled, as it were, hand to hand, with the whole army of hell: before the judgment seat of God he put himself under the heavy judgment and grievous severity of God’s punishment: he was driven into most hard distress: he for us suffered and went through most horrible fears, and most bitter griefs of mind, to satisfy God’s just judgment in all things, and to appease his wrath. For to sinners, whose person Christ did here bear, not only the sorrows and pains of present death are due, but also of death to come and everlasting: so when he did take upon him and bear both the guiltiness and just judgment of mankind, which was undone, and was already condemned, he was tormented with so great trouble and sorrow of mind, that he cried out, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? Nowell, p. 50.
This came to pass according to the state of his human nature; his Godhead in the mean time not putting forth the force of his power. Nowell, p. 51.
**They crucified him, and with him two thieves: and the Scripture was fulfilled which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors. Mark 15:25, 27, 28; Isa. 53:12.
***When Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost. Luke 23:46. When they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs. John 19:33. Our Lord Jesus Christ died for us. 1 Thess. 5:9, 10. I lay down my life, that I might take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. John 10:17, 18.
****When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus’ disciple; he went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed. Matt. 27:57–60. He made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death. Isa. 53:9.
****His dead and spiritless body was laid in the grave, that his death should be more evident, and that all men might certainly know it. For if he had by and by revived, many would have brought his death in debate and question, and so might it seem that it was likely to prove doubtful. Nowell, p. 52.
*to reconcile his Father to us, and to be **a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also for actual sins of men.
ut Patrem nobis reconciliaret, essetque hostia, non tantum pro culpa originis, verum etiam pro omnibus actualibus hominum peccatis.
*It pleased the Father that in him should all fullness dwell; and having made peace (or, making peace) through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself. – And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled in the body of his flesh through death. Col. 1:19–22. That he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby (or, in himself): and came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh. Eph. 2:16, 17. The Son of Man came – to give his life a ransom for many. Matt. 20:28. That he might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people. Heb. 2:17. When we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son. Rom. 5:10. All things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation; to wit, that God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. 2 Cor. 5:18, 19. This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Matt. 3:17. He hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. 2 Cor. 5:21.
*Whose mediation was so acceptable to God the Father, through his absolute and perfect obedience, that he took his act for a full satisfaction of all our disobedience and rebellion, whose righteousness he took to weigh against our sins, whose redemption he would have stand against our damnation. Hom. xxix. 3.
God hath given his own natural Son, being God eternal, immortal, and equal unto himself in power and glory, to be incarnated; and to take our mortal nature upon him, with the infirmities of the same; and in the same nature to suffer most shameful and painful death for our offences, to the intent to justify us, and to restore us to life everlasting; so making us also his dear children, brethren unto his only Son our Saviour Christ, and inheritors for ever with him of his eternal kingdom of heaven. Hom. iii. 3.
Oh the abundant riches of God’s great mercy! oh the unspeakable goodness of his heavenly wisdom! (Rom. 11:33.) When all hope of righteousness was past on our part, when we had nothing in ourselves, whereby we might quench his burning wrath, and work the salvation of our own souls, and rise out of the miserable estate wherein we lay; then, even then, did Christ the Son of God, by the appointment of his Father, come down from heaven, to be wounded for our sakes, to be reputed with the wicked, to he condemned unto death, to take upon him the reward of our sins, and to give his body to be broken on the cross for our offences. Hom. xxv. 2.
In the Son the Father is pleased and reconciled to the world again: in whom also he hath fully given us all things requisite to eternal life and absolute felicity. For he for us and for our salvation was incarnate, dead, raised to life again, and taken up into heaven, there to be our mediator for ever, and advocate unto his Father. And in these points do lie the lively veins of the Gospel, which flow with wholesome waters unto eternal life. For in them doth consist the sound consolation of the faithful, and the enduring tranquility of a quiet conscience, without them there is no life or quiet rest. B. iv. i.
**Thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin (or, his soul shall make an offering for sin). Isa. 53:10. Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many. Hebr. 9:28. Christ died for our sins. 1 Corinth. 15:3. Now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. Heb. 9:26. Christ hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour. Eph. 5:2. In whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins. Col. 1:14. Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away [or, beareth] the sin of the world. John 1:29. The blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth from all sin. 1 John 1:7. If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: and he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. 1 John 2:1, 2. Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him striken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was wounded (or, tormented) for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes (or, bruise) we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. (Heb. hath made the iniquity of us all to meet on him.) Isai. 53:4 6. ACTUAL SINS, called also: Works of the flesh. Gal. 5:19. Evil fruit of a corrupt tree. Matt. 7:17, 18. Luke 6:43. Evil things, which an evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart bringeth forth. Matt. 12:34. Evil thoughts, words, and actions which proceed from the heart. Matt. 15:19. Sins after the similitude of Adam’s transgression. Rom. 5:14. The pollutions of the world. 2 Pet. 2:20. Fleshly lusts. 1 Pet. 2:11. Sin brought forth by lust having conceived. James 1:15. Works of darkness. Eph. 5:11. The deeds of the old man. Col. 3:9. Dead works. Heb. 6:1. Wicked works. Col. 1:21. Unlawful deeds. 2 Pet. 2:8. Ungodly deeds. Jud. 15. Unfruitful works. Eph. 5:11. Whose end is death. Rom. 6:21.
**We must trust only in God’s mercy, and that sacrifice which our High Priest and Saviour Christ Jesus the Son of God once offered for us upon the cross, to obtain thereby God’s grace and remission, as well of our original sin in baptism, as of all actual sin committed by us after our baptism, if we truly reprent, and turn unfeignedly to him again. Hom. iii. 2.
I believe the forgiveness of sins. Apost. Creed.
He suffered for our salvation. Athan. Creed.
For us men and for our salvation he came down from heaven. Nicene Creed.
Almighty God, our heavenly Father, who of thy tender mercy didst give thine only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the cross for our redemption: who made there (by his one oblation of himself once offered) a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world. Com. Service.
III. Of the going down of Christ into Hell.
As Christ died for us, and was buried; so also is it to be believed, that he *went down into Hell.
III. De descensu Christi in Inferos.
Quemadmodum Christus pro nobis mortuus est, et sepultus; ita est etiam credendus ad inferos descendisse.
*I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures; and that he was buried. 1 Cor. 15:3, 4. David speaketh concerning him, I foresaw the Lord always before my face, for he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved: therefore did my heart rejoice, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall rest in hope: because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. David being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne; he seeing this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption. Acts 2:25–27, 29–31. Ps. 16:8–10. Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth? He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things. Eph. 4:9, 10. By which (the Spirit) he went and preached unto the spirits in prison. 1 Pet. 3:19. Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with me in paradise. Luke 23:43. To this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living. Rom. 14:9. That through death he might destroy (καταργήση) him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; and deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. Heb. 2:14, 15. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, (or, hell) where is thy victory? 1 Cor. 15:55. Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise. Luke 23:43.
*As Christ by his body descended into the bowels of the earth, so, his soul severed from his body, he descended into hell: and therewith also the virtue and efficacy of his death so pierced through to the dead, and to very hell itself, that both the souls of the unbelieving felt their most painful and just damnation for infidelity, and Satan himself, the prince of hell, felt that all the power of his tyranny and darkness was weakened, vanquished, and fallen to ruin. On the other side, the dead, which, while they lived, believed in Christ, understood that the work of their redemption was now finished, and understood and perceived the effect and strength thereof with most sweet and assured comfort. John 5:25; 11:25, 26. Rom. 14:9. Col. 1:19, 20. Nowell, p. 52.
He descended into hell. Apost. Creed.
IV. Of the Resurrection of Christ.
CHRIST *did truly rise again from death,
IV. De Resurrectione Christi.
Christus vere a mortuis resurrexit,
*I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures: and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the Scriptures: and that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: after that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. 1 Cor. 15:3–8. Him God raised up the third day, and shewed him openly; not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead. Acts 10:40, 41. To whom (the apostles) he shewed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God. Acts 1:3. The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day. Luke 9:22. Declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead. Rom. 1:4. Jesus Christ, the first begotten of the dead. Rev. 1:5. Thou wilt not suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. Ps. 16:10. After that he is killed, he shall rise the third day. Mark 9:31. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively. hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead. 1 Pet. 1:3. If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. Rom. 10:9. If we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead; who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification. Rom. 4:24, 25. To this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living. Rom. 14:9.
*So great is the matter of this Article – which is the ground and foundation of our whole religion – and of so great weight and importance, that it was thought worthy to keep our Saviour still on earth, forty days after he was risen from death to life, to the confirmation and establishment thereof in the hearts of his disciples. – Assuredly so highly comfortable is this Article to our consciences, that it is even the very lock and key of all our Christian religion and faith. Hom. xxvi.
If he had not risen, he could not be thought to be the Son of God: but now rising from the dead to eternity of life, he declared a greater power of his Godhead, than if, in descending from the cross, he had fled from the terrors of death. To die, certainly, is common to all; and though some for a time have avoided death intended against them, yet to loose or break the bonds of death once suffered, and by his own power to rise alive again, that is the proper doing of the only Son of God, Jesus Christ, the Author of life, by which he hath shewed himself the conqueror of sin and death, yea, and of the devil himself. Nowell, p. 52.
Q. What profits bringeth it unto us that Christ rose again? A. Manifold and divers. For thereof cometh to us righteousness, which before we lacked: thence cometh to us endeavour of innocency, which we call newness of life: thence cometh to us power, virtue, and strength to live well and holily: thence have we hope that our mortal bodies also shall one day be restored from death, and rise whole again. For if Christ himself had been destroyed by death, he had not been our deliverer; for what hope of safety should we have had left by him that had not saved himself? It was therefore meet for the person which the Lord did bear, and a necessary help for us to salvation, that Christ should first deliver himself from death, and afterwards that he should break and pull in sunder the bands of death for us, and so that we might set the hope of our salvation in his resurrection. For it cannot be that Christ our head, rising again, should suffer us the members of his body to be consumed and utterly destroyed by death. Nowell, p. 55.
He died to destroy the rule of the devil in us; and he rose again to send down his Holy Spirit to rule in our hearts, to endow us with perfect righteousness. Hom. xxvi.
Ye see, good Christian people, how necessary this article of our faith is; seeing it was proved of Christ himself by such evident reasons and tokens, by so long time and space. Now, therefore, as our Saviour was diligent for our comfort and instruction to declare it, so let us be as ready in our belief to receive it to our comfort and instruction. As he died not for himself, no more did he rise again for himself. He was dead, saith St. Paul, for our sins, and rose again for our justification. (Rom. 4:25.) O most comfortable word, evermore to be borne in remembrance He died, saith he, to put away sin: he rose again to endow us with righteousness. His death took away sin and malediction; his death was the ransom of them both; his death destroyed death, and overcame the devil, which had the power of death in his subjection; his death destroyed hell, with all the damnation thereof. Thus is death swallowed up by Christ’s victory, thus is hell spoiled for ever. If any man doubt of this victory, let Christ’s glorious resurrection declare him the thing. If death could not keep Christ under his dominion and power, but that he rose again, it was manifest that his power was overcome. If death be conquered, then must it follow that sin, wherefore death was appointed as the wages, must be also destroyed. If death and sin be vanished away, then is the devil’s tyranny vanished, which had the power of death, and was the author and brewer of sin, and the ruler of hell. If Christ had the victory of them all by the power of his death, and openly proved it by his most victorious and valiant resurrection; – as it was not possible for his great might to be subdued of them; – and it is true, that Christ died for our sins, and rose again for our justification; why may not we, that be his members by true faith, rejoice and boldly say with the Prophet Hosea and the Apostle Paul, Where is thy dart, O death? Where is thy victory, O hell? Thanks be unto God, say they, which hath given us the victory by our Lord Jesus Christ. (1 Cor. 15:55). Hom. xxvi.
*and took again his body, with flesh, bones, and all things appertaining to the perfection of man’s nature, **wherewith he ascended into heaven,
suumque corpus cum carne omnibusque ad integritatem humanae naturae pertinentibus, recepit; cum quibus in coelum ascendit,
*Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing. John 20:27. Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet. And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb. And he took it, and did eat before them. Luke 24:39, 40, 42, 43.
**Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over him. Rom. 6:9. This man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of God. Heb. 10:12. When he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. Heb. 1:3. We have such an High Priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; a minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man. Heb. 8:1, 2. God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, &c. Phil.2:9, 10. While he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven. Luke 24:51. So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. Mark 16:19. He raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand, in the heavenly places. Eph. 1:20. Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. Rom. 8:34. Go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God. John 20:17. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. Ps. 110:1. Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things. Acts 3:21. If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. Col. 3:1.
**To this our Saviour and Mediator hath God the Father given the power of heaven and earth, and the whole jurisdiction and authority, to distribute his goods and gifts committed to him: for so writeth the Apostle, To every one is grace given, according to the measure of Christ’s giving. And thereupon to execute his authority committed, after that he had brought sin and the devil to captivity, to be no more hurtful to his members, he ascended up to his Father again, and from thence sent liberal gifts to his well-beloved servants, and hath still the power to the world’s end to distribute his Father’s gifts continually in his church, to the establishment and comfort thereof. And by him hath Almighty God decreed to dissolve the world, to call all before him, to judge both the quick and the dead, and finally by him shall he condemn the wicked to eternal fire in hell, and give the good eternal life, and set them assuredly in presence with him in heaven for evermore. Hom. xxix. 3.
Christ sitting on the right hand of God doth with his power, wisdom, and providence, rule and dispose the world, move, govern, and order all things, and so shall do till the frame of the world be dissolved. Nowell, p. 56.
It was meet that Christ, which from the highest degree of honour and dignity had descended to the basest estate of a servant, and to the reproach of condemnation and shameful death, should on the other side obtain most noble glory and excellent estate, even the same which he had before, that his glory and majesty might in proportion answer to his baseness and shame. Phil. 2:8, 9, 10. Nowell, p. 55.
Christ by ascending and sitting on the right hand of his Father, hath removed and thoroughly rooted out of men’s hearts that false opinion, which sometime his Apostles themselves had conceived, namely, that Christ should reign visible here in earth, as other kings and worldly princes do. Nowell, p. 57.
Q. What profit take we of his ascending into heaven, and sitting on the right hand of his Father? A. First, Christ, as he had descended to the earth, as into banishment for our sake; so when he went up into heaven, his Father’s inheritance, he entered in our name, making us a way and entry thither, and opening us the gate of heaven, which was before shut against us for sin: for sith Christ our head hath carried with him our flesh into heaven, so mighty and loving a head will not leave us for ever in earth, that are members of his body. Moreover he being present in the sight of God, and commending us unto him, and making intercession for us, is the patron of our cause, who being our advocate, our matter shall not quail. Nowell, p. 55.
Neither did our Lord, after he was risen again from the dead, though he were glorified, put off, or lay aside his true body, which he had once taken and put on. And his glorification doth not take away the truth of his nature. For he saith unto his disciples, a Spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me have. Wherefore be carried that his true and very flesh into heaven with him, in his true flesh he appeareth always for us in the sight of God the Father: in his true flesh he will come to judge the quick and the dead: in his true flesh they shall see him which crucified him. Christ according to this nature (who in respect of his Godhead is no creature, but a Creator) is a creature. For the flesh of Christ hath beginning, and lineally descended from Adam, who is the creature of the living God. B. iv. 6.
and there sitteth, until he *return to judge all men at the last day.
ibique residet, quoad extremo die ad judicandos homilies reversurus sit.
*When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: and before him shall be gathered all nations. Matt. 25:31, 32. We must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body. 2 Cor. 5:10. He commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is He which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead. Acts 10:42. The Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom. 2 Tim. 4:1. The Father hath committed all judgment unto the Son: and hath given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of man. John 5:22, 27. He hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead. Acts 17:31. The day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up. Seeing then that all these things shall be dissolved, what manner of persons ought ye to be in all holy conversation and godliness, looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God. 2 Pet. 3:10, 11, 12. See also 1 Pet. 4:5. Rom. 2:16.
*Christ shall come in the clouds of heaven with most high glory, and at the sound of the trumpet all the dead that have lived from the creation of the world to that day, shall rise again with their souls and bodies whole and perfect, and shall appear before his throne to be judged, every one for himself, to give account of their life, which shall be examined by the uncorrupted and severe Judge according to the truth. Nowell, p. 60.
Q. Ought the godly at thinking upon this judgment to be strickened and abashed with fear, and to dread it, and shrink from it? A. No. For He shall give the sentence, which was once by the judge’s sentence condemned for us, to the end that we, coming under the grievous judgment of God, should not be condemned but acquitted in judgment. He, I say, shall pronounce the judgment, in whose faith and protection we are, and which hath taken upon him the defense of our cause. Nowell, p. 61.
Moreover, he came in flesh, and in the self-same flesh ascended into heaven, to declare and testify unto us, that all faithful people which steadfastly believe in him, shall likewise come unto the same mansion place, whereunto he, being our Chief Captain, is gone before. Hom. xxiv.
Whatsoever things he hath done, he hath done them all for our benefit, even so far that they be as much our own, (so that with steadfast and lively faith we cleave unto them) as if we ourselves had done them. He was crucified, and we also are crucified with him, and our sins punished in him. He died, and was buried. We also, together with our sins, are dead and buried, and that so as all the remembrance of our sins is for ever forgotten. He rose from death, and we also are risen again with him, being so made partakers of his resurrection and life, that from thenceforth death hath no more dominion over us. For in us is the same Spirit which raised Jesus Christ from the dead. Finally, beside that since his ascension we have most abundantly received the gifts of the Holy Ghost, he hath also lifted and carried us up into heaven with him, that we might as it were with our head take possession thereof. These things indeed are not yet seen, but then shall they be brought abroad into light, when Christ, which is the light of the world, in whom all our hope and wealth is set and settled, shining with immortal glory, shall shew himself openly to all men. Nowell, p. 58.
When thou hadst overcome the sharpness of death, thou didst open the kingdom of heaven to all believers. Thou sittest at the right hand of God in the glory of the Father. We believe that thou shalt come to be our Judge. Te Deum.
Almighty God, give us grace that we may cast away the works of darkness, and put upon us the armour of light, now in the time of this mortal life, (in which thy son Jesus Christ came to visit us in great humility;) that in the last day when he shall come again in his glorious majesty to judge both the quick and dead, we may rise to the life immortal, through him who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, now and ever. Amen. Collect for Advent.
V. Of the Holy Ghost.
*The Holy Ghost, **proceeding Spiritus Sanctus, from the Father and the Son,
V. De Spiritu Sancto.
Spiritus Sanctus, a Patre et Filio procedens,
*Teach all nations, (or, make disciples, or, Christians of all nations), baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Matt. 28:19. There are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost. 1 John 5:7. The Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him. Luke 3:22.
*Q. What believest thou of the Holy Ghost? A. I confess that he is the third Person of the most Holy Trinity, proceeding from the Father and the Son before all beginning, equal with them both, and of the very same substance, and together with them both to be honoured and called upon. Nowell, p. 62.
The Holy Ghost is a spiritual and divine substance, the third Person in the Deity, distinct from the Father and the Son, and yet proceeding from them both. Which thing to be true, both the Creed of Athanasius beareth witness, and may be also easily proved by most plain testimonies of God’s holy word. When Christ was baptized of John in the river Jordan, we read that the Holy Ghost came down in form of a dove; and that the Father thundered from heaven, saying, This is my dear and well-beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. (Matt. 3:17.) Where note three divers and distinct Persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost: which all notwithstanding are not three Gods, but one God. Likewise, when Christ did first institute and ordain the sacrament of Baptism, he sent his disciples into the whole world, willing them to baptize all nations, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. (Matt. 28:19.) And in another place he saith, I will pray unto my Father, and he shall give you another Comforter. (John 14:16.) Again, When the Comforter shall come, whom I will send from my Father, &c. (John 15:26.) These and such other places of the New Testament do so plainly and evidently confirm the distinction of the Holy Ghost from the other Persons in the Trinity, that no man possibly can doubt thereof, unless he will blaspheme the everlasting truth of God’s Word. Hom. xxviii. 1.
Q. Why is he called holy? A. Not only for his own holiness, which yet is the highest holiness, but also for that by him the elect of God and the members of Christ are made holy. For which cause the holy Scriptures have called him the Spirit of sanctification.
Q. In what things dost thou think that this sanctification consisteth? A. First, we are by his divine instinct and inspiration newly begotten, and therefore Christ said that we must be born again of water and the Spirit. Also by his heavenly breathing on us, God the Father doth adopt us his children, and therefore he is worthily called the Spirit of adoption. By his expounding, the divine mysteries are opened unto us; by his light, the eyes of our souls are made clear to understand them; by his judgment, sins are either pardoned or reserved; by his strength, sinful flesh is subdued and tamed, and corrupt desires are bridled and restrained. At his will manifold gifts are distributed among the godly. In the manifold and divers discommodities, molestations, and miseries of this life, the Holy Ghost with his secret consolations, and with good hope, doth assuage, ease, and comfort the griefs and mourning of the godly, which commonly are in this world most afflicted, and whose sorrows do pass all human consolation: whereof he hath the true and proper name of Paraclete, or the Comforter. Finally by his power our mortal bodies shall rise alive again. Briefly whatsoever benefits are given us in Christ, all these we understand, feel, and receive by the work of the Holy Ghost. Nowell, p. 63.
It is he which inwardly worketh the regeneration and new birth of mankind. Hom. xxviii. 1.
**Jesus said, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. John 14:23, 26. When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me. John 15:26. When he, (εκεινος, το Πνευμα) the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shew it unto you. John 16:13, 14, 15. Because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts. Gal. 4:6. It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. John 16:7. Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this which ye now see and hear. Acts 2:33. Ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his. Rom. 8:9.
**He proceedeth from the Father and the Son. Nicene Creed. The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son, neither made nor created, but proceeding. Athan. Creed.
Our Saviour Christ, departing out of the world unto his Father, promised his disciples to send down another Comforter, that should continue with them for ever, and direct them into all truth. (John 14:16, 15:26.) Which thing to be faithfully and truly performed, the Scriptures do sufficiently bear witness. Neither must we think that this Comforter was either promised, or else given, only to the Apostles, but also to the universal Church of Christ, dispersed through the whole world. For, unless the Holy Ghost had been always present, governing and preserving the Church from the beginning, it could never have sustained so many and great brunts of affliction and persecution, with so little damage and harm as it hath. Hom. xxviii. 2.
As he promised he sendeth down his Holy Spirit from heaven into our hearts, as a most sure pledge of his good will, by which Spirit he brings us cut of darkness and mist into open light; he giveth sight to the blindness of our minds; he chaseth sorrow out of our hearts, and healeth the wounds thereof ; and with the divine motion of his Spirit he causeth, that, looking up to heaven, we raise up our minds and hearts from the ground, from corrupt affections and from earthly things, upward to the place where Christ is at the right hand of his Father; that we, thinking upon and beholding things above and heavenly, and so raised up and of upright mind, contemn these our base things, life, death, riches, poverty, and with lofty and high courage despise all worldly things. Nowell, p. 56.
Let us, as we are most bound, give hearty thanks to God the Father, and his Son Jesus Christ, for sending down this Comforter into the world; humbly beseeching him so to work in our hearts by the power of his Holy Spirit, that we, being regenerate and newly born again in all goodness, righteousness, sobriety, and truth, may in the end be made partakers of everlasting life in his heavenly kingdom, through Jesus Christ our Lord and Saviour. Amen. Hom. xxviii. 1.
The proceeding of the Holy Ghost is two-fold, or of two sorts, temporal and eternal. Temporal proceeding is that whereby the Holy Ghost proceedeth to sanctify men. The eternal proceeding is that, whereby from everlasting he proceedeth from God. The Spirit proceedeth from both of them, as well from the Father as from the Son. Neither doth he proceed from the Father into the Son severally, and from the Son into creatures. For I say the nature and substance of the Father and the Son, is one and the self-same, inseparable and co-everlasting too. Moreover the eternal proceeding of the Holy Ghost, whereby he proceedeth out of the substance of the Father and the Son, is unspeakable, as the begetting of the Son by the Father. Whereupon it is not said in the Gospel, hath proceeded, or, shall proceed, but proceedeth: for so the Lord declareth his eternity of proceeding, and that the substance of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is co-eternal, and inseparable, and nothing at all differing. B. iv. 8.
*is of one substance, majesty, and glory with the Father and the Son, **very and eternal God.
ejusdem est cum Patre et Filio essentiae, majestatis, et gloriae, verus ac aeternus Deus.
*God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 1 Cor. 2:10, 11. Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord, (or, of the Lord the Spirit). 2 Cor. 3:17, 18. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. 2 Cor. 13:14. Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile (or, destroy) the temple of God, him shall God destroy. Know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God. 1 Cor. 3:16, 17; 6:19.
**Who art one God, one Lord: not one only person, but three persons in one substance. For that which we believe of the glory of the Father, the same we believe of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, without any difference or inequality. Com. Service.
As for his proper nature and substance, it is altogether one with God the Father, and God the Son; that is to say, spiritual, eternal, untreated, incomprehensible, almighty: to be short, he is even God and Lord everlasting. Therefore he is called the Spirit of the Father; therefore he is said to proceed from the Father and the Son; and therefore he was equally joined with them in the commission that the Apostles had to baptize all nations. Hom. xxviii. 1.
**As many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. Rom. 8:14. Through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father. – Ye are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit. Eph. 2:18, 22. Christ through the eternal Spirit offered himself, &c. Heb. 9:14. God created man. Gen. 1:27. The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life. Job 33:4. Thou sendest forth thy Spirit, they are created. Ps. 104:30. Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to (or, to deceive) the Holy Ghost. – Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God? – How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? Acts 5:3, 4, 9. As they ministered to. the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. – They, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed. Acts 13:2, 4. It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. John 6:45. Isa. 54:13. Jer. 31:34. The Holy Ghost shall teach you all things. John 14:26. Ye are the temple of the living God: as God hath said, I will dwell in them and walk in them. 2 Cor. 6:16. Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you. 1 Cor. 3:16. God raiseth the dead. 2 Cor. 1:9. As the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will. John 5:21. Christ was quickened by the Spirit. 1 Pet. 3:18. All scripture is given by inspiration of God. 2 Tim. 3:16. Holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2 Pet. 1:21.
**I believe in the Holy Ghost. Apost. Creed. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life. Nicene Creed. The Catholic Faith is this, That we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity. The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God. And yet they are not three Gods, but one God. Athan. Creed.
I believe in the Holy Ghost: – who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spake by the Prophets. Nicene Creed. The Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, is all one, the Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal. Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost. And in this Trinity none is afore or after other: none is greater or less than another; but the whole three Persons are co-eternal together and co-equal. Athan. Creed.
The Holy Ghost doth sanctify, renew, regenerate, give life, and save: and these are operations agreeable to God only. By operations therefore we manifestly acknowledge, that the Holy Ghost is God, of the same essence and power with the Father and the Son. For the Holy Ghost from the beginning, before all creatures visible and invisible, is a Creator, not a creature. B.
VI. Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for salvation.
*Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation:
VI. De divinis Scripturis quod sufficiant ad salutem.
Scriptura Sacra continet omnia quae ad salutem sunt necessaria:
*The writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables. Exod. 32:16. Promised afore by his prophets in the holy Scriptures (εν γραφαις αγίαις) Rom. 1:2. Thou hast known the holy Scriptures (τα ιερα γράμματα) 2 Tim. 3:15. Holy men of God spake as they were moved (φερόμενοι) by the Holy Ghost. 2 Pet. 1:21. He remembered his holy promise. Ps. 105:42. Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth. John 17:17. The LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book. Exod. 17:14. Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel. Exod. 34:27. Take thee a great roll, and write in it with a man’s pen. Isai. 8:1. Now go, write it before them in a table, and note it in a book, that it may be for the time to come (Heb. the latter day) for ever and ever. Isai. 30:8. Write thee all the words that I have spoken unto thee in a book. Jer. 30:2. Take thee a roll of a book, and write therein all the words that I have spoken unto thee against Israel, and against Judah, and against all the nations from the day I spake unto thee – even unto this day. Jer. 36:2. Son of man, Write thee the name of the day, even of this same day: the King of Babylon set himself against Jerusalem this same day. Ezek. 24:2. And all the laws thereof: write it in their sight, that they may keep the whole form thereof, and all the ordinances thereof, and do them. Ezek. 3:11. Write the vision, and make it plain upon tables, that he may run that readeth it. Hab. 2:2. Moreover I will endeavour that ye may be able after my decease to have these things always in remembrance. 2 Pet. 1:15. These are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name. John 20:31. cf. 21:24, 25. It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, that thou mightest know the certainty (την ασφάλειαν) of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed. Luke 1:3, 4. Whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope. Rom. xv. 4. Search the Scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life. John 5:39. The law (or, doctrine) of the LORD is perfect, converting (or, restoring) the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. Ps. 19:7, 8. To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them. Isa. 8:20. Preach the word; – for the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; – and they shall turn away their ears from the truth. 2 Tim. 4:2, 3, 4. We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed; – knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time (or, at any time) by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2 Pet. 1:19, 20, 21. Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God. 2 John 9. From a child thou hast known the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 2 Tim. 3:15. These things write we unto you, that your joy may be full (πεπληρωμένη). 1 John 1:4. With thee is the fountain of life: in thy light shall we see light. Psal. 36:9. Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path. Ps. 119:105. Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Matt. 4:4. I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God. Saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should come. Acts 20:27, 26:22. If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed. John 8:31. Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you. John 15:14.
*Unto a Christian man there can be nothing either more necessary or profitable than the knowledge of Holy Scripture; forasmuch as in it is contained God’s true word, setting forth his glory, and also man’s duty. And there is no truth nor doctrine, necessary for our justification and everlasting salvation, but that is, or may be, drawn out of that fountain and well of truth. Hom. i. 1.
In Holy Scripture is fully contained what we ought to do, and what to eschew, what to believe, what to love, and what to look for at God’s hands, at length. Hom. i. 1.
The Holy Scriptures are God’s treasure-house; wherein are found all things needful for us to see, to hear, to learn, and to believe, necessary for the attaining of eternal life. Hom. xxii. 1.
And no where can we more certainly search for the knowledge of this will of God – by the which we must direct all our works and deeds – but in the Holy Scriptures; for they be they that testify of him, saith our Saviour Christ. (John 5:39.) It may be called knowledge and learning, that is otherwise gotten without the word: but the Wise Man plainly testifieth, that they all be but vain, which have not in them the wisdom of God. (Wisd. 13:1.) We see to what vanity the old philosophers came, who were destitute of this science, gotten and searched for in his word. We see what vanity the school doctrine is mixed with; for that in this word they sought not the will of God, but rather the will of reason, the trade of custom, the path of the fathers, the practice of the church. Let us, therefore, read and revolve the Holy Scripture both day and night; for blessed is he that hath his whole meditation therein. (Psal. 1:2.) It is that which giveth light to our feet to walk by. (Psal. 119:105.) It is that which giveth wisdom to the simple and ignorant. (Psal. 19:7.) In it may we find eternal life. (John 5:39.) In the Holy Scriptures find we Christ; in Christ find we God: for he it is that is the express image of the Father. (Heb. 1:3.) He that seeth Christ, seeth the Father. (John 14:9.) And contrariwise, as St. Jerome saith, the ignorance of Scripture is the ignorance of Christ. Not to know Christ, is to be in darkness, in the midst of our worldly and carnal light of reason and philosophy. To be without Christ, is to be in foolishness: for he is the only wisdom of the Father, in whom it pleased him that all fullness and perfection should dwell. (Col. 2:9.) With whom whosoever is endued in heart by faith, and rooted fast in charity, hath laid a sure foundation to build on; whereby he may be able to comprehend, with all saints, what is the breadth, length, and depth, and to know the love of Christ. Hom. 22:3.
As the great clerk and godly preacher St. John Chrysostom saith, whatsoever is required to the salvation of man is fully contained in the Scripture of God. He that is ignorant may there learn and have knowledge. He that is hard-hearted, and an obstinate sinner, shall there find everlasting torments, prepared of God’s justice, to make him afraid, and to mollify or soften him. He that is oppressed with misery in this world shall there find relief in the promises of everlasting life, to his great consolation and comfort. He that is wounded by the devil unto death shall find there medicine, whereby he may be restored again unto health. If it shall be requisite to teach any truth, or reprove any false doctrine, to rebuke any vice, to commend any virtue, to give good counsel, to comfort or exhort, or to do any other thing requisite for our salvation; all those things, says St. Chrysostom, we may learn plentifully of the Scripture. Hom. i. 1.
St. Chrysostom saith, that man’s human and worldly wisdom or science is not needful to the understanding of Scripture, but the revelation of the Holy Ghost, who inspireth the true meaning unto them, that with humility and diffidence do search therefore. Homily i. 2.
And briefly to conclude: as St. Augustin saith, By the Scripture all men be amended; weak men be strengthened, and strong men be comforted. So that surely none be enemies to the reading of God’s word, but such as either be so ignorant, that they know not how wholesome a thing it is; or else be so sick, that they hate the most comfortable medicine, that should heal them; or so ungodly, that they would wish the people still to continue in blindness and ignorance of God. Hom. i. 2. See Article xx. 6.
*so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation.
ita ut quicquid in ea nec legitur, neque inde probare potest, non sit a quoquam exigendum, ut tanquam articulus fidei credatur, aut ad salutis necessitatem requiri putetur.
*Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it. Deut. 4:2. Ye shall observe to do therefore as the LORD your God hath commanded you: ye shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left. Deut. 5:32. Every word of God is pure. (Heb). purified). Add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar. Prov. 30:5, 6. All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: that the man of God may be perfect, (άρτιος) throughly furnished (εξηρτισμένος) unto all good works. 2 Tim. 3:16, 17. If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: and if any shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book. Rev. 22:18, 19. There be some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ. But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed. As we said before, so say I now again, If any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed. Gal. 1:7, 8, 9. Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long-suffering and doctrine. For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears; and they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables. 2 Tim. 4:2, 3, 4. In vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandment of men. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition. Matt. 15:9. 6.
*Sith by the name of Testament is signified not only a will, but also a last and unchangeable will, we are hereby admonished that in religion we follow nothing, nor seek for any thing further, than we are therein taught by God; but as there is one only true God, so there be but one godly worshipping and pure religion of one only God. Nowell, p. 2.
Q. Dost thou then affirm that all things necessary to godliness and salvation are contained in the written word of God? A. Yea: for it were a point of intolerable ungodliness and madness to think, either that God had left an imperfect doctrine, or that man were able to make that perfect, which God left imperfect. Nowell, p. 3. See also Article XX. c, d, e.
Therefore, forsaking the corrupt judgment of fleshly men, which care not but for their carcase, let us reverently hear and read Holy Scripture, which is the food of the soul (Matt. 4:4). Let us diligently search for the well of life in the books of the New and Old Testament, and not run to the stinking puddles of men’s traditions, devised by men’s imagination, for our justification and salvation. Hom. i. 1.
God, therefore, and the word of God is the object or foundation of true faith. The thing whereon a man may lean safely, surely, and without all manner of doubting, must needs be steadfast and altogether immovable; which doth give health, which doth preserve, and which doth fill up or minister all fullness to us. B. i. 4.
Faith is not the unstable and unadvised confidence of him which believeth every great and impossible thing. For faith is ruled and bound to the word of God, to the word of God, I say, rightly and truly understood. B. i. 4.
Faith is a gift God poureth into a man from heaven, whereby he is taught with an undoubted persuasion wholly to lean to God and his word, in which word God doth freely promise life and all good things in Christ, and wherein all truth necessary to be believed is plainly declared. B. i. 4.
These books, therefore, ought to be much in our hands, in our eyes, in our ears, in our mouths, but most of all in our hearts. For the Scripture of God is the heavenly meat of our souls: the hearing and keeping of it maketh us blessed, sanctifieth us, and maketh us holy: it turneth our souls: it is a light lantern to our feet: it is a sure, stedfast, and everlasting instrument of salvation: it giveth wisdom to the humble and lowly hearts: it comforteth, maketh glad, cheereth, and cherisheth our conscience: it is a more excellent jewel or treasure than any gold or precious stone: it is more sweet than honey, or honey-comb (Matt. 4:4, Luke 11:28, John 17:17, Ps. 19:10). It is called the best part, which Mary did choose (Luke 10:42), for it hath in it everlasting comfort. Hom. i. 1.
Blessed Lord, who hast caused all holy Scriptures to be written for our learning; Grant that we may in such wise hear them, read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest them; that, by patience and comfort of thy holy Word, we may embrace and ever hold fast the blessed hope of everlasting life, which thou hast given us in our Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen. Coll. for the second Sunday in Advent.
In the name of the *Holy Scripture we do understand those Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament, of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church.
Sacrae Scripturae nomine, eos canonicos libros Veteris et Novi Testamenti intelligimus, de quorum auctoritate, in Ecclesia nunquam dubitatum est.
*This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth; but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein. Josh. 1:8. Seek ye out of the book of the LORD, and read. Isai. 34:16. So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense. Neh. 8:8. Canonical. Their line (or, their rule, or, direction) is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. Ps. 19:4. According to the measure of the rule (or, line, κανόνος) which God hath distributed to us. 2 Cor. 10:13. cf. Gal. 6:16. Let us walk by the same rule (τω αυτω στοιχειν κανόνι), let us mind the same thing. Phil. 3:16. They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. Luke 16:29. Beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. All things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me. Luke 24:27, 44. All the prophets from Samuel and those that follow after, as many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days. Acts 3:24. Search the Scriptures; – they are they which testify of me. John 5:39. To him give all the prophets witness. Acts 10:43. The spirit of Christ – in them – testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. 1 Pet. 1:11. Saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should come. Acts 26:22. Righteousness of God – witnessed by the law and the prophets. Rom. 3:21.
Of the Names and Number of the Canonical Books.
Genesis. Exodus. Leviticus. Numbers. Deuteronomy. Joshua. Judges. Ruth. The 1st Book of Samuel. The 2nd Book of Samuel. The 1st Book of Kings. The 2nd Book of Kings. The 1st Book of Chronicles. The 2nd Book of Chronicles. The 1st Book of Esdras. The 2nd Book of Esdras. The Book of Esther. The Book of Job. The Psalms. The Proverbs. Ecclesiastes or Preacher. Cantica, or Songs of Solomon. 4 Prophets the greater. 12 Prophets the less.
De Nominibus et Numero Librorum Sacrae Canonicae Scripturae Veteris Testamenti.
Genesis. Exodus. Leviticus. Numeri. Deuteron. Josuae. Judicum. Ruth.
Prior liber Samuelis. Secundus lib. Samuelis. Prior liber Regum. Secundus lib. Regum.
Prior liber Paralipom. Secundus liber Paralipomen. Primus liber Esdrae. Secundus liber Esdrae. Liber Hester. Liber Job. Psalmi. Proverbia. Ecclesiastes, vel Concionator. Cantica Solomonis. 4 Prophetae Majores. 12 Prophetae Minores.
And the other Books (as Hierome saith) the Church doth read for example of life, and instruction of manners; but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine; such are these following: –
The 3rd Book of Esdras. The.4th Book of Esdras. The Book of Tobias. The Book of Judith. The rest of the Book of Esther. The Book of Wisdom. Jesus the Son of Sirach. Baruch the Prophet. The Song of the Three Children. The Story of Susanna. Of Bell and the Dragon. The Prayer of Manasses. The 1st Book of Maccabees. The 2nd Book of Maccabees.
Alios autem Libros (ut ait Hieronymus) legit quidem Ecclesia, ad exempla vitae, et formandos mores; illos tamen ad dogmata confirmanda non adhibet; ut sunt: –
Tertius liber Esdrae. Quartus liber Esdrae. Liber Tobiae. Liber Judith. Reliquum libri Hester. Liber Sapientiae. Liber Jesu Filii Sirach. Baruch Propheta. Canticum trium Puerorum. Historia Susannae. De Bel et Dracone. Oratio Manassis. Prior liber Maccabaeorum. Secundus liber Maccabaeorum.
All the Books of the New Testament, as they are commonly received, we do receive and account them Canonical.
Novi Testamenti omnes libros (ut vulgo recepti sunt) rempimus, et habemus pro canonicis.
VII. Of the Old Testament.
The *Old Testament is not contrary to the New;
VII. De Veteri Testamento.
Testamentum Vetus Novo contrarium non est;
*Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Matt. 5:17, 18. Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ. Col. 2:17. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ. Gal. 3:24. He mightily convinced the Jews, and that publicly, shewing by the Scriptures that Jesus was Christ. Acts 18:28. Built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets. Eph. 2:20. They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. Luke 16:29. The righteousness of God without (χωρις) the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets. Rom. 3:21. Moses of old hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day. Acts 15:21.
*If we be the people of God, how can the word and law of God not appertain to us? St. Paul, alleging one text out of the Old Testament, concludeth generally for other Scriptures of the Old Testament as well as that, saying, Whatsoever is written before (meaning in the Old Testament) is written for our instruction: which sentence is most specially true of such writings of the Old Testament, as contain the immutable law and ordinances of God, in no age or time to be altered, nor of any persons of any nations or age to be disobeyed. Hom. xiv. 1.
Although many did take Christ to have swerved from Abraham and the old Fathers, and to have brought in a certain new religion in his own name, yet answered he them directly, If ye believed Moses, ye would believe me also. For my doctrine is not so new as ye make it. For Moses, an author of great antiquity, and one to whom ye give all honour, hath spoken of me. St. Paul likewise, though the Gospel of Jesus Christ be of many counted to be but new, yet hath it, saith he, a testimony most old, both of the law and of the Prophets. Jewell.
But the Jews and Christians have one God, one faith, one way of salvation (which is) by Christ; to be short, one church; – therefore have they also, the self-same Sacraments, saving that ours are given under other signs; and for that through the revelation of the Sun of righteousness (I mean) Christ, are made more lightsome and manifest. I say, further, that the Scripture witnesseth that the Sacraments of the Old Testament and ours, are of the same force; insomuch that Paul calleth them circumcised which are baptized, and them baptized which are circumcised. And he, also, teacheth, That our Fathers did eat that spiritual meat which we eat, and drank of that spiritual drink, that is, the Rock. But anon he addeth, and that Rock was Christ. The words of the Apostle are well known and are read in 1 Cor. 10. The same Apostle in the second chapter to the Colossians saith, In Christ ye are complete, (or made perfect) in whom also ye are circumcised with circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the flesh, subject to sin by the circumcision of Christ; buried with Him in Baptism, &c. What, I pray you, can be spoken more plainly? Circumcision made without hands is the circumcision of Christians, which is Baptism. But in the former place of Paul to the Corinthians, we must mark (as elsewhere I put you in mind) that to be baptized into Moses, is not the same that it is to be baptized into Christ. For to be baptized into Moses, is all one as if he had said, to be baptized by Moses, or through the ministry of Moses: for it is manifest that Moses brought the people to God which were only committed to his charge. B. v. 7.
*for both in the Old and New Testament, everlasting life is offered to mankind by Christ,
quandoquidem tam in Veteri, quam in Novo, per Christurn, aeterna vita humano generi est proposita,
*God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son. Heb. 1:1, 2. Search the Scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me. For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me; for he wrote of me. John 5:39, 46. These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning me. Luke 24:44. The Scripture, forseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the Gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed. So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham. Gal. 3:8, 9. For unto us was the Gospel preached, as well as unto them. Heb. 4:2. The gospel of God, which he had promised afore by his prophets in the Holy Scriptures. Rom. 1:1, 2. In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. Gen. 22:18. If ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise. Gal. 3:29. That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. To Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. Gal. 3:14, 16. Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed. Acts 3:25. To whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and out of the prophets, from morning till evening. Acts 28:23. Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently. 1 Pet. 1:10. The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. Rev. 19:10. It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me. John 6:45. To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins. Acts 10:43. A certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou? Luke 10:25, 26. For there (Zion) the LORD commanded the blessing, even life for evermore. 133:3. The mystery which was kept secret since the world began, but now is made manifest, and by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith. Rom. 16:25, 26. I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Gen. 3:15. Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. Acts 4:12. Whose names are not written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. Rev. 13:8.
*Let us reverently hear and read holy Scripture, which is the food of the soul. Matt. 4:4, Let us diligently search for the well of life in the books of the New and Old Testaments, and not run to the stinking puddles of men’s traditions, devised by men’s imagination, for our justification and salvation. Hom. i. 1.
Behold the great goodness and tender mercy of God in this behalf: albeit man’s wickedness and sinful behaviour was such, that it deserved not in any part to be forgiven; yet, to the intent he might not be clean destitute of all hope and comfort in time to come, he ordained a new covenant, and made a sure promise thereof; namely, that he would send a Messias or Mediator into the world; which should make intercession, and put himself as a stay between both parties, to pacify the wrath and indignation conceived against sin, and to deliver man out of the miserable curse and cursed misery whereunto he was fallen headlong, by disobeying the will and commandment of his only Lord and Maker.
This covenant and promise was first made unto Adam himself immediately after his fall, as we read in the third of Genesis, where God said to the serpent on this wise; I will put enmity between thee and the woman, between thy seed and her seed. He shall break thine head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Afterward the self-same covenant was also more amply and plainly renewed unto Abraham, where God promised him, that in his seed all nations and families of the earth should be blessed. Again, it was continued and confirmed unto Isaac in the same form of words as it was before unto his father. Gen. 12:3, 26:4.
And, to the intent that mankind might not despair, but always live in hope, Almighty God never ceased to publish, repeat, confirm, and continue the same by divers and sundry testimonies of his prophets: who, for the better persuasion of the thing, prophesied the time, the place, the manner, and circumstance of his birth, the afflictions of his life, the kind of his death, the glory of his resurrection, the receiving of his kingdom, the deliverance of his people, with all other circumstances belonging thereto. Hom. xxiv. 1.
The eternal and unchangeable will of God is, that he will give eternal life unto the world. But he will give the life through Christ, who is naturally life itself, and can give life. The very same God will that we obtain and have life in us, and that we have in no other ways than by faith. B. i. 6.
Faith is a gift inspired by God into the mind of man, whereby without any doubting at all he doth believe that to be most true whatsoever God hath either taught or promised in the books of both the Testaments. B. i. 4.
For, the Lord our God, immediately after the creation of the world, promised life and remission of sins unto Adam and his seed through Christ: and afterwards renewed the same promise with Noah, Abraham, Moses, and David, and the other Fathers. And that the Fathers did communicate with Christ, and were partakers of his goodness, Paul the Apostle with the whole Scripture is a witness. B. v. 9.
who is the only *Mediator between God and man,
qui unicus est Mediator Dei et hominum,
*There is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. 1 Tim. 2:5. For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many,) but to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; (or, for him;) and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. 1 Cor. 8:5, 6. The man that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts. Zech. 13:7. That in all things he might have the preeminence. For it pleased the Father that in him should all fullness dwell. Col. 1:18, 19. He ever liveth to make intercession. Heb. 7:25. He is the mediator of a better covenant (or, testament.) Heb. 8:6. He is the mediator of the New Testament. Heb. 9:15. Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant. Heb. 12:24. If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father Jesus Christ the righteous. 1 John 2:1. Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels, intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind, and not holding the head, &c. Col. 2:18, 19. There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, &c. Eph. 4:4, 5. But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe. Rom. 3:21, 22. See Article xviii.
*being both God and man. **Wherefore they are not to be heard, which feign that the old fathers did look only for transitory promises.
Deus et homo. Quare male sentiunt, qui veteres tantum in promissiones temporarias sperasse confingunt.
*See Article ii.
# **For verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them. Matt. 13:17. Jacob said, I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD. Gen. 49:18. Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day; and he saw it, and was glad. John 8:56. Abraham looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God. Heb. 11:10. By faith Noah became heir of the righteousness which is by faith. By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter; choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; esteeming the reproach of Christ (or, for Christ) greater riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto the recompence of the reward. Heb. 11:7, 24–26. Our fathers did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: (gr. went with them:) and that Rock was Christ. 1 Cor. 10:4. We believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they. Acts 15:11. These all died in faith, (gr. according to faith), not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. For they that say such things declare plainly that they seek a country. And truly, if they had been mindful of that country from whence they came out, they might have had opportunity to have returned. But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city. Others were tortured, not accepting deliverance; that they might obtain a better resurrection. Heb. 11:13–16, 35.
**Now the holy fathers of the old Law, and all faithful and righteous men which departed before our Saviour Christ’s ascension into heaven, did by death depart from troubles unto rest, from the hands of their enemies into the hands of God, from sorrows and sicknesses unto joyful refreshing in Abraham’s bosom, a place of all comfort and consolation, as the Scriptures do plainly by manifest words testify. Hom. ix. 3.
All these fathers, martyrs, and other holy men, whom St. Paul spake of, had their faith surely fixed in God, when all the world was against them. They did not only know God to be the Lord, Maker, and Governor of all men in the world; but also they had a special confidence and trust, that he was and would be their God, their comforter, aider, helper, maintainer, and defender. This is the Christian faith, which these holy men had, and we also ought to have. And although they were not named Christian men, yet was it a Christian faith that they had; for they looked for all benefits of God the Father, through the merits of his Son Jesus Christ, as we now do. This difference is between them and us, that they looked when Christ should come, and we be in the time when he is come. Therefore, saith St. Augustine, the time is altered and changed, but not the faith. For we have both one faith in one Christ. The same Holy Ghost, also that we have, had they, saith St. Paul, (1 Cor. 12:4, 13). For as the Holy Ghost doth teach us to trust in God, and to call upon him as our Father, so did he teach them to say, as it is written, Thou, Lord, art our Father and Redeemer; and thy name is without beginning, and everlasting. (Isa. 63:16). God gave them then grace to be his children, as he doth us now. But now, by the coming of our Saviour Christ, we have received more abundantly the Spirit of God in our hearts; whereby we may conceive a greater faith, and a surer trust than many of them had. But in effect they and we be all one: we have the same faith that they had in God, and they the same that we have. Hom. iv. 2.
Even at those days there was the very same God that is now, the same Spirit, the same Christ, the same faith, the same doctrine, the same hope, the same inheritance, the same covenant, and the same efficacy and virtue of God’s word: Eusebius also saith, All the faithful, even from Adam until Christ, were indeed very Christians, though they were not so termed. Jewell.
True faith is ignorant of all division, for there is, saith the Apostle, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, God and Father of all. For there remaineth from the beginning of the world even unto the end thereof, one and the same faith in all the elect of God. God is one and the same for ever, the only well of all goodness, that can never be drawn dry. The truth of God, from the beginning of the world, is one and the same set forth to men in the word of God. Therefore the object and foundation of faith, that is God and the word of God, remain for ever one and the self-same. B. i. 5.
That the fathers were not without the same doctrine it is evident by Saint Paul, who testifieth, saying: God verily promised the Gospel of God afore by his prophets in the holy Scriptures of his Son, which was made of the seed of David, after the flesh, and hath been declared to be the Son of God with power by the Spirit, &c. What could he said more plainly? The Gospel which is at this day preached, was of old promised by the prophets in the holy Scriptures, to wit, that the Son of God should come into the world, to save all faithful believers. They whose doctrine is all one, must of necessity have all one faith. Rom. 4:12, &c. Now that faith of Abraham was not another, but the very same faith with ours, which relieth on the promise of God and the blessed seed.
That all one and the same spirit did govern our forefathers and the people of the new covenant, who can doubt, considering that the Spirit of God is one alone. The sons of God are led by the Spirit. Rom. 8:14. But there is none unless it be such an one as never read the Scriptures, which will deny that the ancient fathers were the sons of God, and were so called both by the Lord himself, also by his servant Moses. Exod. 4:22. Deut. 14:1. And since it is evident that our forefathers were justified by the grace of God, it is manifest that that justification was not wrought without the Spirit of God, through which Spirit even our justification at this day is wrought and finished.
Now also there was set before the eyes of Israel, a carnal and temporal felicity, which yet was not all that they held upon. For in that external and transitory felicity was shadowed the heavenly and eternal happiness. For the Apostle in the fourth and eleventh chapters to the Hebrews saith, that the fathers out of that visible and temporal inheritance, did hope for another invisible and everlasting heritage. Neither was Christ to any other end so expressly promised them, nor the blessing and life in Christ for any other purpose so plainly laid before them, nor Christ himself almost in all their ceremonies so often prefigured, for any other intent, but that they thereby might be put in hope of the very same life, into which we are received through Christ our Redeemer. For the Lord in the Gospel saith that we shall be gathered into the kingdom of heaven, into the same glory with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The Lord doth plainly say: Abraham was glad to see my day: and he saw it and rejoiced. Which saying although we understand to be spoken of the justification and joy of the conscience, yet do we not separate from it the joy of eternal life, because the one doth of necessity depend upon and follow the other.
Moreover our fathers did not pray to any other, but God alone, the only creator of all things, and did believe verily that he would be merciful unto mankind, for the blessed seed’s sake. They were not utterly ignorant of the mediator, for whose sake they were heard of the Lord. Dan. 9:17.
Last of all the Apostle doth shew that the ancient fathers had amongst them the very same sacraments which we now have, as he doth in other places also make us partakers, and apply to us both circumcision and the passover, the sacraments which were given to them of old, as doth appear in Col. 2:11, 17; 1 Cor. 5:7, 10:1–5. Manna, verily, and the rock did typically represent the spiritual food wherewith Christ refresheth both us and them, who is himself the bread and drink of eternal life. B. iii. 8.
The law is a path and ready way, and as it were a schoolmaster given by God to us men, to draw us from all confidence in all our own strength, from all the hope of our own merits, and from the trust in any kind of creatures, and to lead us directly by faith to Christ, who was made of God, our righteousness, sanctification, and redemption, without whom there is no salvation under the sun. Our fathers were shut up in the law that they should not break out at any time, and seek for life and salvation any where else but in Christ alone. Wherefore the law did lead us by faith directly unto Christ. The law setteth forward the true doctrine of justification, teaching plainly that we are justified by faith in Christ, and not by the merits of our own works. Even the ceremonial laws also led them to Christ, testifying and teaching them that he alone doth cleanse us from all our sins. The ancient saints which lived under the Old Testament, did not seek for righteousness and salvation in the works of the law, but in him which is the perfectness and end of the law, even Christ Jesus, and therefore they used the law and the ceremonies as a guide and schoolmistress to lead them by the hand to Christ their Saviour. For so often as they heard that the law required perfect righteousness at their hands, they did by faith through grace understand, that in the law Christ was set forth to be the most absolute righteousness to whom all men ought to fly for the obtaining of righteousness. So often as they met together in the holy congregation to behold the holy ceremonies which God had ordained, they did not look upon the bare figures only, nor think that they did please God, and were purged from their sins by that external kind of worship, but they did cast the eyes of their mind and of faith upon the Messiah to come, who was prefigured in all the ceremonies and ordinances of the law. B. iii. 8.
Although the Law given from God by Moses, as touching Ceremonies and Rites, *do not bind Christian men, nor the civil precepts thereof ought of necessity to be received in any commonwealth;
Quanquam lex a Deo data per Mosen, quoad Caeremonias et Ritus Christianos non astringat, neque civilia ejus praecepta in aliqua republica necessario recipi debeant;
*Stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage. Gal. 5:1. For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law (ceremonial.) Heb. 7:12. Blotting out the hand-writing of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross. Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holy-day, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days: which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ. Col. 2:14, 16, 17. Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances. Eph. 2:15. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. Gen. 49:10. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake. Jer. 31:31, 32. In that he saith new covenant, he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away. Heb. 8:13. For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof. For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in (or, but it was the bringing in) of a better hope did; by the which we draw nigh unto God. Heb. 7:18, 19. In the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease. Dan. 9:27. The law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ: but after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster. Gal. 3:21, 25. How turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, (or, rudiments,) whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage? Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years. I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain. Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. Gal. 4:9, 10; 5:2. I desired mercy, and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings. Hos. 6:6. If they which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect. Rom. 4:14. If ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law. Gal. 5:18.
*There were ceremonies prescribed and given, which as a middle wall, betwixt the Jews and the Gentiles, should compass in and contain the heritage of the Lord: so that in the ceremonies the note of difference did consist, whereby the Jews were known to be the lawful heirs of God’s good promises, whereof the Gentiles had no part or portion: but Christ came into the world to the intent that of two people, the Jews and the Gentiles, he might make one church, and therefore did he break down the middle wall that parted them, that is, he did clean take away the ceremonial ordinances, which were a stop betwixt them. B. iii. 8.
Paul to the Colossians compareth the ceremonies to an obligation or handwriting, whereby God hath us bound, as it were, so that we cannot deny the guilt. But he saith that we were so delivered by Christ from the guilt, that the obligation or hand-writing was cancelled or torn in pieces. But by the cancelling of the hand-writing the debtor is acquitted and set at liberty. B. iii. 8.
For what need hath the Church of shadows and figures, when it doth now enjoy the thing itself, even Christ Jesus, whose shadow and figure the ceremonies bare: moreover the Church hath signs enough, in that it hath received of Christ two sacramental signs, wherein are contained all the things which the old church did comprehend in sundry and very many figures. B. iii. 8.
They therefore did abuse the law, who thought that they were acceptable to God, and that they served him as they should, because they were busy in those ceremonial works. For those thoughts and persuasions the prophets in their sermons did sharply accuse, and evermore cry out upon. And in that sense and for that cause the people of Israel is many times called a carnal people: not that all the patriarchs and fathers before the coming of Christ were carnal or fleshly: but for because they did as yet live then under those external shadows and outward figures, and for because there were peradventure among the people some that did perceive the spiritual things shadowed under these external figures, and did think, perhaps, they were acceptable to God for the working and doing of that external work. B. iii. 8.
When the wicked, stiff-necked, and disloyal people of the Jews did after the death of Christ go on to exercise, prorogue, and to obtrude to all men the ceremonies, which were finished and abrogated at the coming of Messiah, then Christ, sitting at the right hand of the Father, did by means of the Roman Princes, utterly deface their city, and overthrow the temple, wherein they boasted. B. iii. 8.
The judicial laws do seem to be abrogated in this sense, because no Christian commonweal, no city or kingdom is compelled to be bound and to receive those very same laws which were by Moses in that nation, according to the time, place, and state published and set out of old. Therefore every country hath free liberty to use such laws as are best and most requisite for the estate and necessity of every place, and of every time, and persons: so yet that the substance of God’s laws be not rejected, trodden down, and utterly neglected. B. iii. 8.
yet, notwithstanding, no Christian man whatsoever is free from the *obedience of the commandments which are called moral.
nihilominus tamen ab obedientia mandatorum (quae moralia vocantur) nullus (quantumvis Christianus) est solutus.
*Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law (moral). Rom. 3:31. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 1 Cor. 7:19. If ye fulfill the royal law according to the Scripture, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, ye do well: but if ye have respect to persons, ye commit sin, and are convinced of the law as transgressors. For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. James 2:8–10. Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill. Whosoever shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. Matt. 5:17, 19, 20. Sin is the transgression of the law. 1 John 3:4. The law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good. Rom. 7:12. Fear God, and keep his commandments; for this is the whole duty of man. Eccles. 12:13. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness. Rom. 1:18. The wages of sin is death. Rom. 6:23.
*The law, as the highest reason, was by God grafted in the nature of man, while man’s nature was yet sound and uncorrupted, being created after the image of God; so this law is indeed, and is called, the law of nature. Nowell, p. 28.
Merciful God, minding to renew the same image in us, hath by his law written in tables, set forth the rule of perfect righteousness, and that so lively and fully, that God requireth no more of us but to follow the same rule. For he accepteth no other sacrifice but obedience, therefore he hateth all, whatsoever it be, that we admit in religion, or in the case of worshipping without his prescribed ordinance. Nowell, p. 29. See also Article XIV.
In these tables the Lord hath briefly and summarily comprehended all those things which in the Scriptures are each where most largely set out concerning the several commandments and duties of every several man. Nowell, p. 29.
Q. Seeing then the law doth show a perfect manner of worshipping God aright, ought we not wholly to live according to the rule thereof? A. Yea, and so much, that God promiseth life to them that live according to the rule of the law; and, on the other side, threateneth death to them that break his law. Nowell, p. 29.
In making the law, God respected not so much what we were able to perform, which by our fault are very weak, as what was meet for his own righteousness.—Moreover the law requireth nothing of us, but what we are bound to perform. Nowell, p. 30.
The law in requiring so precise perfectness of life, doth shew to the godly, as it were, a mark for them to level at, and a goal to run unto, that, daily profiting, they may with earnest endeavour travel toward the highest uprightness. This purpose and desire the godly by the guiding of God do conceive. But principally they take heed, so much as they are able to do and to attain to, that it may not be said there is any notorious fault in them. Secondly, whereas the law requireth things far above men’s power, and where they find themselves too weak for so great a burden, the law doth raise them up to crave strength at the Lord’s hand. Moreover, when the law doth continually accuse them, it striketh their heart with a wholesome sorrow, and driveth them to repentance, and to beg and obtain pardon of God through Christ, and therewithal restraineth them, that they trust not upon their own innocency, or presume to be proud in the sight of God, and is always to them as a bridle to withhold them in the fear of God. Finally, when beholding by the law, as it were in a glass, the spots and uncleanness of their souls, they learn thereby that they are not able to attain perfect righteousness by their works: by this mean they are trained to humility, and so the law prepareth them, and sendeth them to seek righteousness in Christ. The law is, as it were, a certain schoolmaster to Christ, to lead us the right way to Christ, by knowing of ourselves, and by repentance and faith. Nowell, p. 31.
As concerning the time, which Almighty God hath appointed his people to assemble together solemnly, it doth appear by the Fourth Commandment of God; Remember, saith God, that thou keep holy the Sabbath day. Upon the which day, as is plain in the Acts of the Apostles (Acts 13:1), the people accustomably resorted together, and heard diligently the Law and the Prophets read among them. And albeit this commandment of God doth not bind Christian people so straitly to observe and keep the utter ceremonies of the Sabbath day, as it was given unto the Jews, as touching the forbearing of work and labour in time of great necessity, and as touching the precise keeping of the seventh day, after the manner of the Jews; – for we keep now the first day, which is our Sunday, and make that our Sabbath, that is, our day of rest, in the honour of our Saviour Christ, who, as upon that day, rose from death, conquering the same most triumphantly; – yet, notwithstanding, whatsoever is found in the commandment appertaining to the law of nature, as a thing most godly, most just, and needful for the setting forth of God’s glory, it ought to be retained and kept of all good Christian people. Hom. xx. 1.
Because manners cannot consist if the ten commandments be broken, therefore the moral law, although it have properly the name of a law, is notwithstanding not abrogated or broken. For the ten commandments are the very absolute and everlasting rule of true righteousness, and all virtues set down for all places, men, and ages, to frame themselves by. For the sum of the ten commandments is this, to shew our love to God and to one another: and this doth the Lord require at all times, and every where of all kind of men. Moreover this is to be noted touching the dignity of the moral law contained in the ten commandments, that whereas all the ceremonial and judicial laws were revealed of God to Moses by the angels, and by Moses to the people, and that again by Moses, at God’s commandment, they were inserted into written books: yet notwithstanding the moral law of the ten commandments was not revealed by man, or any means of man, but by God himself at the Mount Sinai, who there, among other mighty and marvelous wonders, did openly, in a public and innumerable assembly of men and angels, rehearse them word for word, as they are now to be seen. Furthermore they were written not by the hand of Moses, but with the finger of God in tables, not made of matter easy to be dissolved, but made of stone to endure for ever. Those tables also were kept as the most precious treasure in that ark, which of the tables of the covenant (containing in them the chief articles of the eternal league) was named the ark of the covenant. Which ark again was laid up in the holy of holiest. All which circumstances tend to nothing else, but to commend unto us the excellency of the ten commandments, and to warn us to reverence that God which published this moral law, as him that is the Lord of heaven and earth, and which at his own will and pleasure doth order the disposition of all the elements against disobedient rebels: these circumstances also do admonish us, that even now, in our time also, we have to esteem of the ten commandments, as of the dearest jewels to be found in all the world. For the holy relics that are remaining in the Church of Christ are the ten commandments, the apostles’ creed, the Lord’s prayer, and lastly, the whole contents of the sacred Bible. B. ii. 2.
VIII. Of the Three Creeds.
The Three Creeds, Nicene Creed, Athanasius’s Creed, and that which is commonly called the *Apostles’ Creed, **ought thoroughly to be received and believed: for they may be proved by most certain warrants of Holy Scripture.
VIII. De Tribus Symbolis.
Symbola tria, Nicaenum, Athanasii, quod vulgo apostolorum appellatur, omnino recipienda sunt, et credenda: nam firmissimis Scripturarum testimoniis probari possunt.
*Q. Why is the sum of our faith called a symbol? A. A symbol by interpretation is a badge-mark, watch-word, or token, whereby the soldiers of one side are known from their enemies. For which cause the short sum of our faith, by which Christians are severally known from them that be not Christians, is rightly called a symbol. Q. But why is it called the symbol of the apostles? A. Because it was first received from the apostles’ own mouth, or most faithfully gathered out of their writings, and allowed from the very beginning of the Church, and so hath continually remained among all the godly, firm, stedfast, and unmoved, as a sure and staid rule of Christian faith. Nowell, p. 31.
**Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the Catholic faith. Which faith, except every one do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly. Athan. Creed.
Q. What dost thou chiefly learn in these Articles of thy belief? A. First, I learn to believe in God the Father, who hath made me and all the world. Secondly, in God the Son, who hath redeemed me and all mankind. Thirdly, in God the Holy Ghost, who sanctifieth me, and all the elect people of God. Catechism.
Q. What meanest thou by this word believe? A. I mean thereby that I have a true and a lively faith, that is to say, a Christian man’s faith in God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and that I do by this form of confession testify and approve the same faith. Q. Is there any faith which is not a true and lively faith? A. There is indeed a certain general faith, as I may so call it; and there is a dead faith. Nowell, p. 32. See on Article xii.
The Articles of the Christian faith are as it were a brief summary of true faith: for they are the substance and matter of true faith, wherein faith is exercised: which, because it is the ground of things hoped for, here is plainly and briefly declared in these Articles what things those are that are to be hoped for. B. i. 7.
The Apostles’ Creed.
I Believe in *God the **Father Almighty, ***Maker of heaven and earth:
*He that cometh to God must believe that he is. Heb. 11:6. See Article i.
**Have we not all one Father? hath not one God created us? Mal. 2:10. I am the Almighty God. Gen. 17:1.
***In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Gen. 1:1.
And *in Jesus Christ his only **Son our Lord, who was ***conceived by the Holy Ghost,
*That all men should honour the Son even as they honour the Father. John 5:23. See Article ii.
**No man hath seen God at any time; the only-begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. John 1:18.
***The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. Luke 1:35.
*born of the Virgin Mary, **suffered under Pontius Pilate, was ***crucified ****dead, and buried; he descended into *****hell;
*And she brought forth her first born Son. Luke 2:7.
**They delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor. And when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified. Matt. 27:2, 26.
***And they crucified him. Matt. 27:35.
****Christ died for our sins – and he was buried. 1 Cor. 15:3, 4.
*****Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell. Psalm 16:10. Acts 2:27. See Article iii.
the third day he *rose again from the dead; he **ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; ***from thence he shall come to ****judge the quick and the dead.
*He rose again the third day. 1 Cor. 15:4. From the dead. verse 12.
**He was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. Mark 16:19. See Article iv.
***This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven. Acts 1:11.
****Ordained of God, to be the Judge of quick and dead. Acts 10:42.
I believe in the *Holy Ghost; the **holy Catholic Church; the ***Communion of Saints; the ****Forgiveness of sins; the *****Resurrection of the body, and ******the life everlasting.
*Teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Matt. 28:19. See Article v.
**Christ loved the church, and gave himself for it; – that he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. Ephes. 5:25–27. See Article xix. xvii.
***But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect. Heb. 12:22, 23. We have fellowship one with another. 1 John 1:7. See Article xvii.
****Through this man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins. Acts 13:38. See Article ii. xvi. xxvii. xxxi.
*****It is sown a natural body: it is raised a spiritual body. 1 Cor. 15:44.
******And these shall go away into everlasting punishment; but the righteous into life eternal. Matth. 25:46. See Article xvii.
The Athanasian Creed.
*Whosoever will be saved, before all things it is necessary that he hold the Catholic Faith. **Which Faith except every one do keep whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly. And the Catholic Faith is this, ***That we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity. Neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing the Substance.
*He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. Mark 16:16. With the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. Rom. 10:10. On the Catholic Church, see Article xvii.
**If ye continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the Gospel. Col. 1:23. The unlearned and unstable wrest the Scriptures to their own destruction. 2 Pet. 3:16. On Faith, see Article xii.
***That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. John 5:23. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Matt. 28:19.
*For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost. But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, **is all one; the ***Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal.
*The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen. 2 Cor. 13:14. See Article i.
**The LORD (Jehovah) our God (our Elohim) is one LORD (one Jehovah). Deut. 6:4. God is one. Gal. 3:20.
***Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God. Phil. 2:6.
*Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Ghost. The Father **uncreate, the Son uncreate, and the Holy Ghost uncreate. The Father ***incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the Holy Ghost incomprehensible. The Father ****eternal, the Son eternal, and the Holy Ghost eternal.
*He that hath seen me hath seen the Father. John 14:9.
**To us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. 1 Cor. 8:6.
***Canst thou by searching find out God? Canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? Job 11:7. The unsearchable riches of Christ. Eph. 3:8. The Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. 1 Cor. 2:10.
****The eternal God is thy refuge. Deut. 33:27. Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and today, and for ever. Heb. 13:8. The eternal Spirit. Heb. 9:11.
And yet they are not three eternals, but *one eternal. As also there are not three incomprehensibles, nor three uncreated; but one uncreated, and one incomprehensible. So likewise the Father is **Almighty, the Son Almighty, and the Holy Ghost Almighty. And yet they are not three Almighties, but one Almighty. So the Father is ***God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God. And yet they are not three Gods, but one God.
*There is but one God. 1 Cor. 8:6. These three are one. 1 John 5:7.
**O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come. Rev. 11:17. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty. Rev. 1:8.
***The Lord God omnipotent reigneth. Rev. 19:6. His name shall be called, – The Mighty God. Isa. 9:6. The things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 1 Cor. 2:11.
So likewise the Father is *Lord, the Son Lord, and the Holy Ghost Lord. And yet not three Lords, but one Lord. For like as we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every person by himself to be God and Lord; so are we forbidden by the Catholic Religion to say, There be three Gods, or three Lords. The Father is **made of none, neither created, nor begotten. The Son is of the Father alone, not made, nor created, but ***begotten. The Holy Ghost is of the Father and of the Son, neither made, nor created, nor begotten, but ****proceeding. So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; one Holy Ghost, not three Holy Ghosts. And in this Trinity none is afore or after other, none is greater or less than another; but the whole three Persons are co-eternal together, and co-equal.
*The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ. Rev. 11:15. And this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. Jer. 23:6. Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. 2 Cor. 3:17.
**The Father hath life in himself. John 5:26.
***God gave his only begotten Son, &c. John 3:16.
****When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me. John 15:26. The Spirit of Christ. 1 Pet. 1:11.
So that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, is to be worshipped. He therefore that will be saved, must thus think of the Trinity. Furthermore it is necessary to everlasting salvation, that he also *believe rightly the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.
*Every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of Antichrist, &c. 1 John 4:3. See Article II. XV. XVIII.
For the right Faith is, that we *believe and confess, that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is **God and Man. ***God ****of the Substance of the Father, *****begotten before the worlds; and ******Man of the Substance of his mother, born in the world.
*With the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. Rom. 10:10.
**God was manifest (gr. manifested) in the flesh. 1 Tim. 3:16. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 1 Cor. 15:47.
***Christ, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Rom. 9:5. This is the true God. 1 John 5:20.
****I and my Father are one. John 10:30.
*****We beheld his glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father. John 1:14.
******Behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a Son, and shalt call his name Jesus. Luke 1:31.
*Perfect God, and **perfect Man; ***of a reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting: ****equal to the Father as touching his Godhead, and *****inferior to the Father as touching his Manhood.
*In him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily. Col. 2:9.
**Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren. Heb. 2:17.
***My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death. Matt. 26:38.
****He thought it not robbery to be equal with God. Phil. 2:6.
*****My Father is greater than I. John 14:28.
Who although he be God and Man, yet he is not two, but *one Christ: one, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh; but by **taking of the Manhood into God: one altogether, ***not by confusion of Substance, but by unity of ****Person.
*To us there is – but one Lord Jesus Christ. 1 Cor. 8:6.
**Forasmuch as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part (μετέσχε) of the same. He took on him (επιλαμβάνεται) the seed of Abraham. Heb. 2:14, 16.
***Of whom (the fathers) as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Rom. 9:5.
****Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a Son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. Matt. 1:23. Isa. 7:14.
For as the reasonable soul and flesh is one man, so God and Man is one Christ; *who suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, rose again the third day from the dead, He ascended into heaven, he sitteth on the right hand of the Father, God Almighty; from whence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. At whose coming **all men shall rise again with their bodies, and ***shall give account of their own works. ****And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and they that have done evil into everlasting fire. This is the Catholic Faith; which except a man believe faithfully he cannot be saved. Glory be, &c. As it was, &c.
*He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. Isa. 53:5, 6.
**And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead, which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. Rev. 20:13.
***We must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. 2 Cor. 5:10.
****And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal. Matt. 25:46.
The Nicene Creed.
I believe in *one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, **and of all things visible and invisible.
*To us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. 1 Cor. 8:6.
**By him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by him, and for him. Col. 1:16.
And in *one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God: **begotten of his Father before all worlds: ***God of God; ****Light of Light; *****very God of very God;
*See 1 Cor. 8:6 above.
**In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. – And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth. John 1:1–14.
***Being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person. Heb. 1:3.
****The Father of lights. James 1:17. That was the true light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. John 1:9.
*****Unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever. Heb. 1:8. This is the true God. 1 John v. 20.
begotten, *not made: being **of one substance with the Father; ***by whom all things were made: ****who for us men and for our salvation came down from, heaven, and was *****incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was ******made man,
*He is before all things, and by him all things consist. Col. 1:17.
**The Father is in me, and I in him. John 10:38.
***By whom also he made the worlds. Heb. 1:2.
****Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners. 1 Tim. 1:15.
*****The Word was made flesh. John 1:14.
******God sent forth his Son, made of a woman. Gal. iv. 4.
and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; he *suffered and was buried, and the third day he rose again **according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father : and he shall come again ***with glory to judge both the quick and the dead; ****whose kingdom shall have no end.
*Christ hath once suffered for sins, – that he might bring us to God. 1 Pet. 3:18.
**Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. Luke 24:25–27.
***The Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him; then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory. Matt. 25:31.
****His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. Dan. 7:14.
And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the *Lord and Giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, who with the Father and the Son **together is worshipped and glorified, who ***spake by the Prophets. And I believe one ****Catholic and Apostolic Church; I acknowledge one Baptism for the *****remission of sins; and I look for the Resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.
*The law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death. Rom. 8:2. See Article V.
**Teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Matt. 28:19.
***For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man, but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2 Pet. 1:21.
****Ye are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone; in whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord. Ephes. 2:20, 21.
*****Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. Acts 2:38. See Article XXVII.